Monday, December 17, 2018

Draught Soldiers to the 27th Regiment

27th Regiment of Foot muster rolls, 1763
In the summer of 1763, having received King George's Instructions regarding the reduction of the British armies in North America, the acting generals put in motion their plan for augmenting the three regiments that would remain guarding Quebec. It was decided the 15th, 27th, and 2d Battalion, 60th Royal American Regiment would be assigned this task.

An analysis of the official Subsistence Rolls of the 78th Regiment reveals approximately 358 soldiers remained in North America for this duty; some were volunteers, others were called upon because of the time remaining on their current enlistment contracts.

At the conclusion of the war, the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment experienced a significant reduction in the staffing of soldiers. And to maintain adequate troops levels required for guarding Quebec, subsequent muster rolls include augments from the 47th and 78th Foot, each providing men to replenish the regiment.

By September 1765, the regiment was distributed as follows: Four companies in the town of Quebec, three companies to Trois Rivieres, and two to Montreal, Colonel Massey being appointed to command the district.

In August 1767, the regiment embarked on board the transports for Europe, September 29th landed at Cork, Ireland, and the next day proceeded to Dublin. In the following year, the regiment was quartered at Limerick, returning to Dublin in 1769, where it remained until 1774 when it returned to Limerick.

It is not known how many 78th veterans from this group remained in North America.

Draughts of the 78th Regiment
The following 55 soldiers, recorded as veterans of the 78th Foot, are identified as having joined the 27th Foot on 25 August 1763. This muster is for 183 days ending 24 October 1763, the earliest available rolls after 1 September 1763, the date by which most of Colonel Fraser's men had transferred.

Lieutenant-Colonel Massey's Company
Reporting at St. Peters on South River, 24 October 1763
1. Private Andrew Anderson
2. Private John Cameron
3. Private Robert Keith
4. Private Loughlin Mitchal
5. Private Daniel McIntosh
6. Private John McIntosh
7. Private William McKinzie
8. Private James Taveish

Major John Maunsell's Company
Reporting at St. Peters on South River, 24 October 1763
9. Private Allexr. Faquher
10. Private Keneth McLean
11. Private Angush McDonold

Captain James Holmes' Company
Reporting at Trois Rivieres, 29 October 1763
12. Private Malkam Fergison
13. Private John Kennady
14. Private Laughlin McGuire

Captain John Campbell's Company
Reporting at St. Francois, 2 November 1763
15. Private Bryan Cairy
16. Private Donald Camaron
17. Private Evan Camaron
18. Private Collin Campbell
19. Private John Campbell
20. Private John Fraser
21. Private Jeremiah Fraser
22. Private Allexander Fraser
23. Private John Hutcheson
24. Private William McGilveroy
25. Private John McDonald, Senr.
26. Private Donald McPhii
27. Private Christopher McKinzey
28. Private John McDonald, Junr.
29. Private Evan McBean
30. Private Evan McMullan
31. Private Donald McDonald
32. Private John McGibbans
33. Private Robert McKinn
34. Private Allexander Murray
35. Private Robert Pellypren [Bellypren?]
36. Private John Summers

Captain Apollos Morris' Company
Reporting at Point au Tremble, 25 October 1763
37. Private Dennis Carney
38. Private Duncan Campbell
39. Private James Filk
40. Private Hugh Grimes
41. Private John McGinnis
42. Private Bryan Murphy
43. Private William Morrow
44. Private Peter McIntire
45. Private William Noble

Captain Henry Pringle's Company
Reporting at De Chambo, 27 October 1763
46. Private Jno. Duff
47. Private Alexr. Fletcher
48. Private Danl. Frazer
49. Private Jno. Reed

Captain Philip Skene's Company
Reporting at St. Anns, 28 October 1763
50. Private Alexander Hackny
51. Private John Muster'd
52. Private Robert McFarling
53. Private Archibold Robinson

Captain William Stewart's Company
Reporting at Trois Rivieres, 29 October 1763
54. Private William Hearly
55. Private George Strachan

Notes:
2. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
4. Listed as Lachlin Mitchell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
5. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
6. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
7. Recorded as 78th veteran, and appears on a 1765 land grant submitted by veterans, but not listed on any known rosters for the 78th Regiment.
8. Listed as Tavish on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
9. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
10. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
11. Probably Angus McDonell, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
12. Listed as Malcolm Ferguson on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
13. Listed as Kennedy on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
14. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
15. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767; there recorded as Keary.
16. Listed as Cameron on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
17. Listed as Cameron on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
21. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767.
22. Listed as Alexander on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
23. Listed as Hutchinson on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 1st Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
24. Listed as McGillivrae on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
25. Listed as McDonell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Father to soldier #28.
26. Listed as McPhie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
27. Listed as McKenzie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
28. Listed as McDonell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Son to soldier #25.
30. Listed as McMillan on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
32. Listed as Gibbons on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767; there recorded as McGibbons.
34. Listed as Alexander on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
35. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
36. Listed as Summer on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
37. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Name appears elsewhere as a veteran of the 47th Foot. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767.
39. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
40. Possibly Hugh Graham, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
41. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
42. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 29th Foot by 9 October 1767.
43. Possibly William Moore or More, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767; there recorded as Mourow.
44. Listed as McIntyre on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
47. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
46. Listed as Duffie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
48. Recorded as 78th veteran [possibly Donald Fraser], but unable to properly verify. See forenames explanation below.
49. Listed as Ried on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
50. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 1st Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
51. Recorded as "away on command." Listed as Mustard on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
52. Recorded as "away on command." Listed as McFarlane on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
53. Recorded as "away on command."
54. Listed as Harley on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.

Interchangeable names
The following names were most likely used interchangeably:

Forenames
- Daniel & Donald are sometimes, but not always, interchangeable in Scotland, because Domhnall, the Gaelic version of Donald, may be Anglicised as Daniel.

Surnames
- Graham/Grimes
- McDonald/McDonell

Sources:
War Office Records. 27th Foot, 1st Battalion. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists, 1759-1777. TNA, W.O. 12/4328.

War Office Records: Muster Books and Paylists: General, 47th Regiment, 1760-1763. LAC, W.O. 12/5871, Microfilm C-9202.

War Office Records: Return of Volunteers from the Inniskilling Regiment of Foot, given to the following Regiments. New York, 9 October 1767. In Letters, Military Despatches, Gen. Gage, 1767-1769, W.O. 1, vol. 8. LAC.

Trimble, William Copeland. The Historical Record of the 27th Inniskilling Regiment: from the Period of Its Institution as a Volunteer Corps till the Present Time. Clowes, 1876.

National Battlefields Commission, "Database of 1759-1760: Soldiers on the Plains of Abraham." Web. http://www.ccbn-nbc.gc.ca/en/history-heritage/battles-1759-1760/soldiers/. Accessed 17 December 2018.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

Donald Whyte, "Scottish Forenames." Details of a the forename Daniel. Web.
http://www.whatsinaname.net/male-names/Daniel.html. Accessed 17 December 2018.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Saturday, December 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Twelve

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
12th. By this day's orders it appears the General intends a most vigorous attack, supposed behind the town, where to appearance a landing is impracticable.

Our disposition terminates thus ; that the Light Infantry are to lead and land first, in order to maintain a picquering with the enemy (as also cover the troops' debarkation) till the army take a footing on the heights.

We are to embark on board our flatt-bottomed boats by 12 o'clock and upon the Sunderland man-of-war showing a light, we are to repair to that rendevouze, where the boats will range in a line and proceed when ordered in the manner directed ; viz. the Light Infantry the van, and the troops to follow by seniority. The army compleated to 70 rounds ammunition each man ; and the flatt-bottomed boats to repair to the different vessells, and proportionably divide according to the number on board the ship.

By 10 o'clock Colonel How called for the volunteers in the Light Infantry, signifying to them, that the General intends that a few men may land before the Light Infantry and army, and scramble up the rock, when ordered by Capt. Delaune, who is to be first in the boat along with us ; saying that he thought proper to propose it to us, as he judged it owuld be a choice, and that is any of us survived, might depend on our being recommended to the General. made answer : We were sensible of the honour he did, in making us the first offer of an affair of such importance as our landing first, where an opportunity occured of distinguishing ourselves, assuring him his agreeable order would be put in execution with the greatest activity, care, and vigour in our power.

he observing our number consisted only of eight men, viz. :

1st. Fitz-gerald
2nd. Robertson
3rd. Stewart
4th. Mc Allester
5th. Mackenzie
6th Mc Pherson
7th. Cameron
8th. Bell

Ordered we should take 2 men of our own choice from three companys of Lt. Infantry, which in all made 24 men. Which order being put in execution we embarked in our boat. Fine weather, the night calm, and silence all over.

Waiting impatiently for the signal of proceeding.

September 12th and 13th. Morning, 2 o'clock, the signal was made for our proceeding, which was done in pretty good order, the same disposition formerly mentioned. When we came pretty close to the heights we rowed close in with the north shore, which made the Hunter sloop-of-war, who lay of, suspect us to be enemy, not being apprised of our coming down. However, we passed two sentries on the beach without being asked any questions. The third sentry challenged, who is there? Was answered by Capt. Fraser in the French tongue, saying we are the provision boats from Montreal, cautioning the sentry to be silent, otherwise he would expose us to the fire of the English man-of-war. This took place till such time as their officer was acquainted, who had reason to suspect us, ordering all his sentrys to fire upon us ; but by this time the aforesaid volunteer was up in eminence, and a part of the Light Infantry following. After we got up we only received on fire, which we returned briskly, and took a prisoner, the remaining part of the enemy flying into a field of corn. At same time we discovered a body of men making towards us, who we did not know (it being only daybreak), but were the enemy ; we put ourselves in the best posture of making a defence ; two of us advanced, when they came close, and challenged them, when we found it was Capt. Fraser with his co., who we join'd, and advanced to attack this party of the enemy lodged in the field, who directly fled, before us ; by pursuing close the Lieut. and his drummer came in to us. In this interval the whole of the Light Infantry were on the heights, and a part of the regts. We remained till the whole army took post, when we were detached to silence a battery who kept firing on our shipping who were coming down the river. This was effected without the loss of a man ; the enemy placed one of the cannon to flank, drew off, and got into the woods which was within forty yards of the battery. We demolished the powder, and came away.

On our return we saw our army forming the line of battle ; we (Light Infantry), who stood about 800 paces from the line, were ordered to face outwards, and cover the rear of our line, as there was a body of the enemy in their rear and front of the Light Infantry. About 6 o'clock observed the enemy coming from town, and forming under cover of their cannon ; we saw they were numerous, therefore the General made the proper disposition for battle ; they marched up in one extensive line. When they came within a reconoitring view they halted, advancing a few of their Irregulars, who kept picquering with one or two platoons, who were advanced for that purpose, at the same itm playing with three field pieces of our line. On which the General ordered the line to lay down till the enemy came close, when they were to rise up and give their fire. The enemy, thinking by our disappearing, that their cannon disconcerted us, they thought proper to embrace the opportunity ; wheeling back from the centre, and formed three powerful columns, advanced very regular with their cannon playing on us. By this time we had one field piece on the right, and two howats on the left who began to give fire ; the enemy huzza'd, advancing with a short trott (which was effectually shortened to a number of them) they began their fire on the left, the whole of them reclining that way, but received and sustained such a check that the smell of gunpowder became nautious ; they broke their line, running to all parts of the compass.

To our great concern and loss General Wolfe was mortally wounded ; but the Brigadiers, who were also wounded, excepting Murray, seeing the enemy break, ordered the Granadiers to charge in among them with their bayonets, as also the Highlanders with their swords, which did some execution, particularyy in the pursuit.

During the lined being engaged, a body of the enemy attacked a part of the Light Infantry on the right, were repulsed, and thought proper to follow the fait of traverse sailing. As I was not in the line of battle I can't say what the latest disposition of the enemy way before engaging.

How soon this action was over we received a part of our intrenching tools and began to make redoubts, not knowing but next morning we would have another to cut, as the enemy expected 13 companies of Granadiers to join, and about 2000 men who occupy'd a post mean Point au Treamp, but it seemed they were not recovered of the former morning's portion ; not liking English medicines.

This affair gave great spirit to the whole army, notwithstanding the loss of much regretted Life of the Army, General Wolfe. The men kept-sober, which was a great maxim of their bravery.

Towards the evening a part of the enemy, who were the Regulars, formed, who seemed to make a shew of standing ; Colonel Burton, 48th regt. was drawn opposite with a field piece in their front, which disputed them. We took post in our redoubts ; not having the camp equipage on shore, part of the army lay on their arms in the field till next morning. All quiet during the night of the 13th.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, December 1, 2018

Army Return of the Battle of Sainte-Foy, 28 Apr. 1760

Army Return of The Battle of Sainte-Foy, 28 Apr. 1760
The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in the United States). It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de LĂ©vis over the British army under General Murray. The battle was notably bloodier than the Battle of the Plains of Abraham of the previous September, and it was considered the last French victory in North America.

Return of the Officers, that were Killed, Wounded, Taken Prisoners, Missing, on the 28th of April 1760
Amherst's 15th Regiment
Killed:
1. Lieut. Maxwell, Senr.
Wounded:
2. Capt. Lieut. Cockburn
3. Lieut. Mukins
4. Lieut. Maxwell, Junr.
5. Lieut. Cathcart
6. Lieut. Winter
7. Lieut. Irwin
8. Lieut. Lockhart
9. Ens. Moneypenny
10. Ens. Bartlett
11. Ens. Mills
12. Ens. Barker
Wounded Prisoner:
13. Lt. Hamilton
14. Ens. Montgomery

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 4
- Rank & File: 21
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 9
- Rank & File: 82

Notes:
1 & 4: Lts. Maxwell: father/son
14. Ens. Montgomery would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Bragg's 28th Regiment
Wounded:
1. Colonel Walsh
2. Major Dalling
3. Capt. Spann
4. Capt. Mitchelson
5. Lt. & Adj. Tassell
6. Lieut. Brown
7. Lieut. Phibbs
8. Ens. Gilmer
9. Ens. Sheppard
10. Ens. Beal

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 14
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 4
- Drummers: 4
- Rank & File: 100

Otway's 35th Regiment
Wounded Prisoner:
1. Captain Ince
2. Lieut. Brown
3. Ens. Lysaght

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Rank & File: 12
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 43

Notes:
1. Captain Ince would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Kennedy's 43rd Regiment
Wounded:
1. Captain Skey
2. Lieut. Clements
Prisoner:
3. Captain Maitland
Wounded Prisoner:
4. Ens. Maw

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Rank & File: 5
Wounded:
- Rank & File: 16

Lascelle's 47th Regiment
Killed:
1. Major Hussey
Prisoner:
2. Lieut. Sheriff
Wounded:
3. Lieut. Forster
4. Lieut. Bassett
5. Lieut. Ewer
6. Lieut. Stratford
7. Ens. Ulstik
8. Ens. Handfield
Wounded Prisoner:
9. Captain Archbold

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 10
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 43

Notes:
9. Captain Archbold would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Webb's 48th Regiment
Killed:
1. Ens. Nicholson
Wounded:
2. Capt. Sir James Cockburn
3. Capt. Lieut. Barbutt
4. Lieut. Waterhouse
5. Lieut. Royce
6. Lieut. Crowe
7. Lieut. Moore
8. Ens. Campbell
9. Ens. Johnson
Prisoner:
10. Lieut. Davers

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Rank & File: 22
Wounded:
- Rank & File: 63

Anstruther's 58th Regiment
Killed:
1. Ens. Conway

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 7
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 3
- Rank & File: 45

Monckton's 2d Bn. 60th Regiment
Wounded:
1. Ens. Snow Steel
2. Ens. Donald McDonald

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 1
Wounded:
- Rank & File: 9

Lawrence's 3d Bn. 60th Regiment
Wounded:
1. Capt. Faesch
2. Lieut. Faesch
3. Lieut. Campbell
4. Lieut. Grant
5. Lieut. Stephens
6. Lieut. Lewis Forbes
7. Ens. Pinckney
8. Ens. McGee
9. Ens. Hill
10. Ens. Stewart
Prisoner:
11. Colonel Young
12. Capt. Charteris

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 9
Wounded:
- Rank & File: 32

Notes:
6. Lieut. Lewis Forbes would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Fraser's 78th Regiment
Killed:
1. Capt. Donald McDonnell
2. Lieut. Cosmo Gordon
Wounded:
3. Colonel Fraser
4. Capt. John Campbell
5. Capt. Alexr. Fraser
6. Capt. McLeod
7. Lieut. Archd. Campbell
8. Lt. Hector McDonnell
9. Lt. Donald McBean
10. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Senr.
11. Lt. John Nairn
12. Lt. Arthur Rose
13. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Junr.
14. Lt. Simon Fraser, Senr.
15. Lt. Archd. McAllister
16. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Grenadiers
17. Lt. John Chissolm
18. Lt. Simon Fraser, Junr.
19. Lt. Malcolm Fraser
20. Lt. Donald McNeil
21. Ens. Henry Munroe
22. Ens. Robert Menzies
23. Ens. Charles Stewart
24. Ens. Duncan Cameron
25. Ens. William Robertson
26. Capt. Lt. Chas. McDonnell
Wounded Prisoner:
27. Ens. Alexr. Gregorson
28. Ens. Malcolm Fraser
Missing:
29. Lt. Alexr. Campbell

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 51
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 10
- Rank & File: 119

Notes:
8. Lt. Hector McDonnell expired 8 May 1760 from his wounds.
10 & 13: Lts. Fraser: father/son
14 & 18: Lts. Fraser: father/son
28. Ens. Malcom Fraser would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Artillery
Wounded:
1. Major Goodwin
2. 2d Lieut. Heathcoat
3. 2d Lieut. Scott
4. Lt. Fireworker Davidson
Wounded Prisoner:
5. Lt. Fireworker Cooke

Wounded:
- Bombardiers: 3
- Gunners: 1
- Matrosses: 6
Missing:
- Matrosses: 1

Chief Engineer
Wounded:
1. Major McKellar

Rangers
Wounded:
1. Capt. Hazzen

Sources:
James Wolfe, "Return of the officers, that were killed, wounded, taken prisoners, missing, on the 28th of April 1760." Northcliff Collection: Series 1: Robert Monckton Papers. LAC, Microfilm: C-366.

James Murray, "List of officers sent in Governor Murray’s return not included in the list of English prisoners returned from Canada, June 14, 1760." War Officer Records: Amherst Papers. Correspondence between French Officers in North America and the Commander-in-Chief, 1757-1761. LAC, W.O. 34, vol. 10.

Marie Fraser, "Lieutenant Hector McDonnell died of his wounds, 8 May 1760." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

“Capt Ince and four officers died of their wounds.” The Pennsylvania Gazette, 3 July 1760.

“Battle of Sainte-Foy.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Aug. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sainte-Foy.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

The Siege of Quebec: Week Eleven

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
September 5th, 1759. The whole of our Light Infantry, under command of Colonel How, to march 1/4 mile to the westward of Goram's post (formerly mentioned), where they are to embark on board the men-of-war and transports. As we were passing the river Else Chemin the enemy fired from a two-gun battery. None of us hurt ; prodigiously crowded on board.

6th. Nothing extraordinary. We drove up with the flood tide opposite Cape Rouge, discovered some men on the north shore fortyfying the bay to the eastward of the Cape, as also a house which they occupy'd.

This evening His Excellency General Wolfe, with the three Brigadier and the army of the intended attack, embarked. The army in great spirits.

7th. Remains on the same anchorage ground as yesterday. The General in the Hunter sloop-of-war went up the length of Point au Tremble to reconoitre. The enemy continues to word on the north shore.

8th. The General with the Hunter sloop returned at 12 o'cl., orders for 1500 men to prepare to land on north shore, and wait the night tide, under the command of the Brigadiers Moncton and Murray.

A faint.

The Hunter sloop-of-war, one transport with Roy. Americans, and another with Light Infantry, to fall up to Point au Tremble, and return with the ebb tide in the morning. The weather very rainy.

9th. The weather continues very rainy, which prevents the 1500 men landing. We remained off Point au Tremble. The remaining vessels in their former station opposite to Capr Rouge. We can;t perceive any works on the beach, only small entrenchments from the mill to a house about 300 yards to the eastward (belonging to Point au Tremble), and discovered but very few men. 60 bataves on shore ; no floating batterys.

10th. At 8 o'clock this morning returned to Cape Rouge with the ebb tide. This morning a part of the army landed on the south shore, as also three companys Light Infantry, in order to refresh the men and dry their camp equipage after the constant heave rains we had these two past days. Capt. Fraser's co remained on board by lott.

The General went down the river to reconoitre the north shore.

A soldier of Capt. Delaune's co. fell overboard and drowned.

11th. Nothing extraordinary. The troops that landed yesterday remains on shore ; the situation of the enemy the same as the past two days.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, November 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Ten

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 29th, 1759. We are informed at Point Levy camp that three Rangers have brought in three scalps from St Andre, and took a courier with letters, orders, and directions to the captains of militia and friers, desiring them to keep constant guards, and inform the inhabitants that we shall be soon obliged to leave the country.

30th. By order of his Excellency General Wolfe the three Brigadiers assembled in order to consul the measures most practicable for the good of the service. The result of the conference not known by us.

31st. By a deserter we are informed that the enemy are sickly, and discontented with their Indians. Meeting four Indians of the Mohawk tribe with an officer from General Amherst, treacherously deceived them by pretending friendship, and at the same time conducted to a party of French, who made them prisoners, and they are confined on board the frigates formerly mentioned. At nigh the Sea Horse man-of-war, three catts, and one schooner passed the town ; after receiving alarm, cannonading from the battery. None hurt.

September 1st. All the houses below Montmorency Falls, or to the eastward, sett on fire by our army. This forenoon some cannon carried from the Montmorency side to the camp at Point Levy. Our troops there expect an attack from the enemy this night, which is very desirable to all our gentlemen.

2nd. The remaining cannon carried from Montmorency this day.

The Assistant Qr-Master marked the encampments for the Brigade and Lt. Infantry from Montmorency to the left of our cantonments. We hear that the additional company of our regt. are in the river.

3rd. This morning the troops at Montmorency decamped, embarked in boats without the least molestation or advantages taken at that important time of their drawing off. Passing the Point of Orleans, the enemy fired from their batterys (to the westwd of the Falls) both shott and shells none of which made any execution. The enemy's generosity in the above particular and critical juncture is a plain proof that Monsieur Montcalm will make no other use of the Canadians than defend their capital. He must be concerned to see Montmorency abandoned, it not being safe for him to depend on part of his troops to give the least annoyance ; likewise permitting us to detach what numbers we please, to lay waste their country, and still remain in his entrenched camp at Beauport.

This day Captn Cameron of Colonel Fraser's regt. died, much and justly regretted, as he was a most agreeable, sensible, and benevolent man.

We hear the Sunderland man-of-war was attacked the night of the 29th ulto. by 75 bataves; the enemy were repulsed with the loss of 4 bataves taken. In orders, the Light Infantry commanded by Capt. Carden to return to the regt. and all the corps of Lt. Infantry to receive their orders from Colonel How.

4th. An officer and three Rangers arrived in camp with dispatches from General Amherst to General Wolfe, whom they left at Crown Point 8th of Aug. making all preparations necessary for pursuing his design and first the possession of Lake Champlain. We hear nothing of the contents in these dispatches further than a random shott carrying off Colonel Townshend, one ensign and three men of the Light Infantry.

This evening Capt. Cameron aforesaid buried, and Capt. Fraser of Culduthell with his additional company arrived in the harbour.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, November 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Nine

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 22nd, 1759. Some of our men went to pull pease this forenoon, who discovered a party of the enemy and returned. At night the Admiral returned from his reconoitring cruise.

23rd. A few men on horseback made their appearance this morning, but on seeing a small party of our men make towards them they thought proper to retire. At 12 o'clock received orders to get under arms, the whole to march in three separate divisions, viz. the 3rd battalion Roy. Americans to the right of our camp the length of St. Croiz, the 15th regt. with Capt. Fraser's co. of Lt. Infantry the length of St. Nicholas to the left of our camp, under the command of the General, the former division by Major Dalling ; the 3rd division in boats, consisting of co. Light Infantry, commanded by Capt. Charters of the Royal Americans. The consequence of which scout ended in burning a battery, a sloop, and 2 saw mills. The real intention was that if any of the enemy made their appearance, and that we could not bring them to battle, Capt. Simon Fraser with his co. and 50 volunteers of the 15th regt. were to lay in ambush till next morning, when they were to retire. At night Major Dalling returned with his division, exchanged a few shott with the enemy, and made one prisoner.

24th. The General gave orders for the whole to prepare to embark to-morrow.

25th. This morning fell down the Squirel, a sloop-of-war, with the admiral, general, and the wounded officers.

In the evening the 15th regt. and 3rd battalion Roy. Americans embarked. Capt. Fraser's co. covered the retreat ; the enemy fired on us a few shot, only one sustained.

26th. An order from General Wolfe desiring Colonel Young with the 3rd Roy. Americans and 200 marines to land, and keep possession of one former ground at St. Anthony. The 15th regt. and Lt. Infantry to embark on board their flatt-bottomed boats, and return to Point Levy.

27th. Passed the batterys ; not one shott fired at us. Arrived at Point Levy at 4 o'clock, where we learnt that 1000 of the enemy in boats went up the river, who, they imagined, would fall in with us coming down the river. General Wolfe indisposed ; greatly regreted by the whole army.

We were ordered to take post in our former cantonments 3 miles from Point Levy camp, and to the westward of our battery.

28th. Remained in our cantonments all day ; nothing extraordinary happened. At night, by favour of the flood and an easterly wind gale the Lostoff frigate, Hunter sloop-of-war, two catts, and one schooner passed the town ; 200 shott fired at them ; one sailor killed, and two wounded.

The face of the camp at Point Levy entirely changed to the great encouragement given to venders of all kinds.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Transport Vessels for the Highland Battalions

Whitehall March 10, 1757.
Ldrs of the Admty. 

My Lords
I am commanded to signify to your Lordships His Majesty's Pleasure that you do forthwith cause a sufficient number of the Transport Vessels, (ordered by my Letters of the 22d past) to be fitted up, victualled, & provided with Bedding, for receiving on board, and conveying to North America, at the rate of two tons for each person, Two Highland Battalions of Foot, commanded by Lt. Col. Montgomery & Lt. Col. Fraser, Each Battalion consisting of 44 commission & Staff officers, 80 Non Commissioned officers, 20 Drummers, & 1000 private Men, together with the usual allowance of 6 Women, & 3 Servant to Each Company. And it's the Kings' further Pleasure that the said Transport Vessels so fitted up, be directed to repair to Cork in Ireland, under such convoy as your Lordships shall judge sufficient, where the Two Battalions above mentioned are to be embarked; and from whence such of the Transport Vessels, as shall have on board the Battalion, commanded by Lieut. Colonel Montgomery are to proceed to Charles Town in South Carolina, and the remainder, with the Battalion, commanded by Lieut. Colonel Fraser are to proceed to Halifax, in Nova Scotia, at which place they are to be respectively disembarked; And your Lordships will accordingly give the necessary Orders for this purpose to the Commanding Officer of the s Officer, commanding the said Convoy, & Transport Vessels.

Draft

Endorsed:
Draft to the Ldrs of the Admty
March 10th, 1757.
2 Tents, Baggage &c
Transports for Highlanders &c.

After arriving at Glasgow, newspaper accounts depict the main body of Fraser's Highlanders, on or about 19 April 1757, proceeding west to Port Patrick en route to Donaghadee, Ireland, where they would continue their march some 400 miles south to Cork, Ireland and depart for North America in eight transport ships under cover of the Enterprize, a 40-gun man of war.

Note: Originally commissioned Norwich in May 1718, she was later renamed Enterprize on 23 May 1744.

Colonel Simon Fraser
From aboard the Ann transport ship in Cove Harbour, Colonel Fraser wrote on June 28th, 1757:

My Dr Sir,
     Tho I have been long hurryd I am not less so than ever & have but just time to tell you that we marched safe and sound thro Ireland without the loss of a man since we landed they hardly gave us time to cool our bloods when they embarked us & here we are all alive and merry.

    I don’t know if I said anything in answer to yours about the meal but it must be sent for & distributed first to the widows, then to the wives & so on to the third and fourth generation of them that loved me well enough to follow me. As to the Deserters I woud have them be sent by the first troops to Glasgow & Mr Geo Buchanan Junr there will send them by some Capt transporting convicts to Halifax where we are destined to & this I would have done with the rest if any are taken. God bless you my Dr Sir, the Wyfie poor beoch, the bairns, Hopefull &c &c I shall find time to write you at sea.  

[signed]
Yrs S. Fraser

Sergeant James Thompson
The regiment would ultimately depart Cork for Halifax, Nova Scotia on June 30, 1757. The following is an excerpt from Sergeant James Thompson's diary on the sailing to North America:

     Our Regiment rendezvou'd at Cork, there to embark for Service, somewhere or other in North America. We sail'd with seal'd orders, which were only to be open'd when we reach'd a certain latitude. The hir'd vessel I was embark'd in was call'd the Martello, a beautiful new ship, and it was her first voyage. The Captain did not know her trim, and the first few days after our sailing she would run away from the Commodore in no time, in spite of our short'ning sail, and for this high offense, which he couldn't help, the Captain had frequently a shot fired at him, to make him keep under the wing of the Commodore, the shot however, did no further injury than subject the Captain to a fine of six and eight pence for every shot. One day we had a fine stiff breeze and our ship actually outsailed the whole of the Fleet altho' only under bare poles. When the Commodore saw this he was satisfied it wasn't the Captain's fault, and he made him pay no more six-and-eight pence per shot. The ship was so tight that she didn't require pumping the whole of the voyage, which was a lucky circumstance indeed.

     At last, we discover'd the Commodore's Signal for the whole of the Fleet to heave-to, and when we had done this as cleverly as we could, the Signal was made for all Commanding Officers of Corps to go on board the Commodore's ship. This was to make known our Destination, and to receive their Orders accordingly. We soon after found out that our place of destination was Halifax. As good luck would have it, the Fleet was safe, and soon after we cast our Anchor, our Captain was anxious to try the tightness of his ship and gave his orders to have her pump'd. The men had difficulty in getting the pumps to draw, and when, at last, water came, it was as black as my Bonnet, and it produced such a stench, that it would soon have poison'd all the men on board. It turn'd out that instead of pumping out, 'afaith they were obliged to pump in, to prevent the Troops getting sick.

     When we landed at Halifax, we found our Commander-in-Chief General Wolfe there, drilling away the men, and making fight sham-battles at a place round the Town called Deptford, where the ground is level. We were not long at Halifax when we received Orders to set sail for the River Saint Lawrence, and in a few days we came to anchor opposite the harbour of Louisbourg which we knew it was our business to try and take.

Transport Ships at Halifax, 1757
Further research indicates the hired vessel Martello that Serjeant Thompson spoke of may have actually been named Myrtilla, as recorded on October 17, 1757 with the Second Highland Battalion in Halifax Harbour. Thompson describes her as "...a beautiful new ship," and early records confirm she was originally built in 1754. Because Thompson's diary was recorded some years later, it would not be uncommon, due to advanced age, to have erred in his recollections.

Return of Col. Fraser's transport ships in Halifax Harbour, October 1757
Return of Col. Fraser's transport ships in Halifax Harbour, October 1757
Note: The Matilla transport ship, as depicted in the above Return in Halifax Harbour, was most likely named Matilda, commanded by Captain Wing, and recorded as returning to England with five other transport ships, viz., Kent; Neptune; Brotherly Love; Myrtilla; Duchess of Hamilton. [Lloyd's List - "Ships arriving at Downs from North America," 12 Apr. 1757.]

Transport Vessels Depart Louisbourg, 1759
In the early summer of 1759, the British Fleet set sail from Louisbourg for Quebec, in all approximately 9,000 soldiers strong. The regiments were divided into three divisions/brigades [white - 1st brigade, red - 2nd brigade, blue - 3rd brigade], and to further distinguish between regiments the ships were dressed with color-coded vanes. Colonel Fraser's transport vessels for this voyage were as follows:

White Division - 1st Brigade
Colonel Fraser, 78th Foot
Vanes: white, and two blue balls

Ship: Ann & Elizabeth
Shipmaster: Wm. Robinson
Tons: 215
Troops: 113
Taken up: London
With one cutter boat

Ship: Argyle
Shipmaster: Alexr. Morrison
Tons: 300
Troops: 193
Taken up: Boston
With three whale boats

Ship: Jane
Shipmaster: Jno. Garnett
Tons: 273
Troops: 97
Taken up: London
With one cutter boat

Ship: James & Henrietta
Shipmaster: Jno. Meeke
Tons: 357
Troops: 196
Taken up: London
With one flat boat

Ship: Resolution
Shipmaster: Zachy Marshall
Tons: 238
Troops: 122
Taken up: London
With one cutter boat

Ship: Thornton
Shipmaster: Jno. Ekshaw
Tons: 331
Troops: 221
Taken up: New York

Ship: Venus [2]
Shipmaster: Wm. Duffield
Tons: 317
Troops: 208
Taken up: London
With two cutter boats

Total troops: 1150

Note: Venus [2] was the second of two vessels by the same name operating for the British Fleet at this time. The first Venus transport vessel operating in the area was commanded by Shipmaster Johnson.

Sources:
“Transport Vessels for the Highland Battalions.” Letter received by Lords of Admiralty, 10 March 1757. America and West Indies, Original Correspondence, etc. Despatches to governors and others, 1756-1757, C.O. 5 ed., vol. 212, pp. 423-426. Public Archives Canada. Print.

"Transports in the White Division." Northcliffe Collection: Series 1: Robert Monckton Papers. LAC, Microfilm C-366.

Col. Simon Fraser, "Colonel Fraser in Cove Harbour, 28 June. 1757." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

Earl John Chapman, “Troop Transport Martello.” Received by Rootsweb.com, Rootsweb, 10 Apr. 2010, newsarch.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/MARINERS/2010-04/1271681061. Accessed 2 July 2017.

"Halifax Harbour Transporte List." Elizabeth Rose Family papers. NAS, GD125-22-17, p. 18.

Lloyd's Register Group, “Lloyd's Register of Ships.” Lloyd's Register Group Limited, 2017, www.lrfoundation.org.uk/public_education/reference-library/register-of-ships-online/.

Andrew Welsh, "Enterprize departs Cork, Ireland, 30 June 1757." The Magazine of magazines, compiled from original pieces, with extracts from the most celebrated books and periodical compositions published in Europe, vol. 13, p. 575. London. Printed for W. Owen, 1757.

British Fourth Rate Ships of the Line, "Norwich Renamed Enterprize, 1744." Three Decks, Warships in the Age of Sail, 2017. https://threedecks.org/index.php?display_type=show_ship&id=559#BWAS-1714. Accessed 2 July 2017. Web.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.  All rights reserved.

Monday, October 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Eight

Journal written during the siege of Quebec
August 15th, 1759. Remained in camp all day ; the weather rainy. Nothing extraordinary.

16th. This forenoon a small party of the enemy shewed themselves to the left of our encampment, but were repulsed by a few of our advanced guard.

17th. This forenoon the General gave in orders that the two battalions and two companys of Light Infantry should prepare to embark on board their respective vessels, as the former distribution. At 10 o'clock we struck our tents and embarked, where we remained till the night following. The other company of Light Infantry with the 200 marines to remain on shore till further orders, under the command of Captn. Fraser.

18th. At 12 o'clock this day embarked Capt. Simon Fraser with Delaunne's co. of Lt. Infantry. At the same time the General called for commanding officers of companys in order to explain his order of battle at landing next, or at the attack intended on the village Chambeau, where according to intelligence formerly given (by prisoners taken), there are some magazines, and consequently men to endeavour their defence. After which explanation the General sent orders to the commanding officers of the marines to keep the tents of the two regts. standing, that as the enemy might discover the embarkation of Delaune's company in the daytime, seeing the camp as formerly excepting the tents of the Light Infantry, as also keeping the face of the encampment as formerly with a number of large fires, that from these circumstances the enemy will probably conjecture that the tents struck is only the Light Infantry, being detached, &c. Likewise oblige them to keep their quarters, not knowing the infantry's intention or destination.

At 11 o'clock we embarked in boats, and agreeable to orders rendevouzed at the War transport. At 12 o'clock we sett of accompany'd by two floating batterys, for the intended attack of Chambeau, which lies on the north shore, 7 leagues up the river Point au Tremble and 21 leagues ffrom Quebec.

19th. By daybreak we drew nigh the rendevouze formerly mentioned, at the same time discovered a large topsail schooner on her way from shore, and bearing down upon us, which would not be so convenient ; but in a little time they altered their course, by which we understood they meant to scheere off. About an hour after we landed, to our surprise without opposition, being two miles below the church of St. Joseph. We formed a column, Delaune's and Carden's company forming the van, and Fraser's company, with a detachmt of Royal Americans, the rear guard. As churches were generally the posts they occupied we marched in the aforesaid order without any molestation, excepting a few shott on our rear which did not disturb us much, when our van came in sight of the church of St. Joseph, a Capt. of De La Sare's regiment with about 60 regulars made a show of making a stand, which obliged the Brigadier to make a disposition of attacking, not knowing but they might be a part of a larger body. On their seeing the head of our column draw nigh, the Capt. and his men withdrew to the wood without firing a shott. Near this church found a store-house in which store was all the effects including equipage and apparel, of all the officers in Quebec, civil and military, besides arms and ammunition, the whole value as 90.000 pounds sterling money, which we consumed by fire. We remained at Chambeau till 1/2 past three o'clock in the evening ; being low water we embarked on board our boats, carrying off some sheep, leaving 100 cattle shott on the beach. Major Dalling's Light Infantry covered the retreat, which was done in pretty good order, and without the loss of one man. After we were embarked, and about 500 yards from shore, the General ordered one Capt. Mophak, a sea officer who had the command and direction of the flatt-bottomed boats when without the troops or at embarking or debarking, with two floating batterys and two flatt-bottomed boats with troops in them, to attack the schooner which lay dry on the sout shore. On the boars approaching the enemy fired two shott, abandon'd her, and sett her on fire. As we were coming down the river we was fired on by a party of Canadians from behind logs on the south shore ; none hurt. Arrived at 10 o'clock this night at our camp ; part of the troops did not disembark.

20th. The remaining part of the troops disembarked, and the marines in camp embarked. Rainy weather. At night disturbed by our sentry's firing at some straggling enemy coming to sculk by our camp ; the Light Infantry under arms till day, during which time it rained very hard.

21st. This morning the Brigadr (Genl Murray) sent to the camp desiring Capt. Fraser to come on board, signifying to him that he considered a diversion up the river to be of great consequence, and that every measure practicable should be taken to destroy the French shipping (which lay about 24 leagues above the town or city of Quebec) in order to clear the communication twixt us and Mr. Amherst, proposing to send Capt. Fraser with despatches to his Excellency General Wolfe, which afterwards was dropt. Forenoon of the day Admiral Holmes went on board a schooner in order to go reconoitre the French shipping and sound the channel.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Companies of the 78th Regiment, 1763

As early as March 1759 Colonel Fraser's 78th Highlanders consisted of 14 companies and over 1500 men and women, each commanded by a commissioned officer. By 1763 the total number was reduced quite significantly to a regiment just under 900 in strength. Although thoroughly documented muster rolls [complete with soldier's names] are not available for the early years, it's towards the latter end of the war when would finally discover the names of the men and women who graced their country in what will be forever recognized as one of the single most important military campaigns in North America's early history.

Muster rolls have remained an important document in military accountability for literally hundreds of years. In addition to identifying the names in a company, battalion, or regiment, they sometimes contained a 'record of events,' recording activities engaged in by the particular unit. The primary function of the many rolls maintained was to provide basic information about the identities, numbers, condition, equipage, and pay status of the men and women that comprised the British Army in order to facilitate administrative control. The rolls would have been created at the formation of a regiment, and continued monthly [bimonthly, and even semi-annually] as a way to track the status of each member, and finally ending when the unit was disbanded. It has been reported commanding officers' sometimes 'padded their rolls' [accounting for more men than they actually had] in order to receive extra rations at the end of the month. 

The earliest known surviving subsistence rolls [muster rolls created to document the official discharge dates, including funding victualed to each soldier] for the 78th Highlanders are dated 19 July 1763, with a subsequent set created one month later in August. Though errors have been discovered in the final reporting [we would expect to see incomplete or ambiguous reporting when dealing with about 900 names], these rolls serve as the Regiment's official discharge roster at the time of its disbandment.

Colonel Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 1763

Source:
“Revolutionary War Rolls, 1894-1913.” National Archives Catalog, War Department, National Archives, Washington, D.C. , 1947, catalog.archives.gov/id/602384.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Monday, October 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Seven

August 8th, 1759. This morning by 10 o'clock were ordered to embark on board our boats (it being tide of flood) to attempt a landing on the north shore opposite to the church of Point au Tremble. The disposition of our landing was that Major Dalling's Light Infantry (being but 3 cos.) should lead and land first. The Marines to bring up the rear of the 15th regt. When the signal was made (which was a wave of the brigadier's hat) a reef of rocks ahead rendered it impossible to row directly in : Capt. Simon Fraser ordered two boats to row a little to the left, which was followed by the boat in which he was, containing the remaining part of the company belonging to him, who got clear of the rocks, pushed directly in, and landed. We drew up on the beach opposite to a body of the enemy posted in a copse in our front. Capt. Fraser discovering another body on our left, besides several smaller parties moving between the copse and the houses of the village Point au Tremble, he thought it imprudent to begin an attack before some more men were landed. He therefore cry'd to Brigadier Murray (whose boat was then near our shore) to order more men to land. On which the Brigadr. landed along with his Brigade Major (Maitland), Colonel Carleton, and Capt. Stobo, seemed dissatisfied with the slowness of the other two companys at landing, unfairly attributing the cause to shyness, when in reality it was owing to two boats running on the reef of rocks formerly mentioned. So soon as the boats floated, Capt. De Laune pushed in landing where Capt. Fraser's co. were drawn up, but as the different of time twixt Capt. Fraser's landing and Capt. Delaunne's were about 16 minutes, most of the former company were three feet deep in water, being tide of flood, which damaged part of their ammunition. Another great obstacle which disconcerted the Brigadr. that the boats in which the remaining part of the troops were embarked must row against tide in consideration of which the General thought proper to order a retreat to be beat ; the two companys drew off, reembarked in their respective boats without much confusion, but sustained part of the enemy's fire.

After drawing off from shore, the General ordered the killed and wounded on board a sloop who was exchanging some shot with one of the enemy's fleating batteries. As also the dry ammunition to be proportionally divided, and the whole to prepare for a second attack, in the same order as the former. We accordingly rowed in shore, but we found all the copse better lined than formerly, and from our boats could discover a considerable body on a road about 500 yards from thence, and those in the copse as formerly. The whole appeared formidable, as an officer on horseback went from one body to another, viz. that posted on the beach, the other on the road, and the one posted by the church aforesaid to deliver orders (as may be supposed). However, Major Dalling pursued the directions given him : when we came within gun-shot of the enemy, they gave us so heavy a fire of musketry that our landing was impracticable, besides, nor could our sailor's stand by their oars for some minutes. Upon seeing the boats wherein the regts. were embarked, pulled about, the soldiers seized the oars, backed water, and drew off from the fire. We learnt that upon the General's seeing these large bodys of the enemy in the village, he ordered the retreat to be beat, which we did not hear, being under the fire of the enemy. On this repulse, the whole of the troops re-embarked on board their respective ships. The following is an account of the killed and wounded of the three companys of Light Infantry : 10 officers wounded ; 36 privates wounded, and 26 killed.

N.B. Also 10 sailors killed and wounded belonging to the Sunderland man-of-war.

August 9th, 1759. Employed in the disposing and carrying for the wounded most of the day. At nine o'clock this night the Brigadr. ordered Lt. Crofton of the Rangers to land on the south shore in order to take a prisoner. He accordingly with 20 men landed, surprised a barn in which there were 9 Canadians, killed 4, and took 5 prisoners.

10th. This morning embarked on board our flat-bottomed boats, in order to land on the south shore, in the same order as the 8th inst. About half an hour after 7 o'clock rowed in and landed, after sustaining a small fire from the enemy, of whom we killed five, and took a captain of militia prisoner. Our loss consisting of one private killed, 6 wounded, and Lt. Sam Rutherford of Amherst's regt. wounded.

After we beat off the enemy, we took possession of an eminence where we encamped, strongly situated opposite to our ships, near village St. Nicholas, 21 miles from Point Levy camp.

11th. Remained in camp ; nothing done.

12th. Very rainy weather. This morning a schooner from below joined our fleet ; the m'r of reports that two catts with a regt. on board endeavoured to pass the town, but were obliged to put back by the brisk cannonading of the batterys.

13th. A detachment of 400 men under the command of Major Dalling marched to the eastward to reconoitre the country ; they were fired on by a small party of Canadians, who made the following execution, viz. Capt. Carden wounded, also 4 wounded of the Rangers. On which the General ordered all the houses east of our post (in the parish of St. Croix) to be sett on fire, and at the same time fixed a manifesto on the church door, declaring that if they should anoye any of our troops passing or repassing the communication, for the future, that no quarter will be given the inhabitants when taken, without exception or respect to person. The detachment took a great number of cattle ; no prisoners.

14th. This morning 7 marines straggled about 800 yards from the camp, who was taken by the enemy, part of whom they massacred and left on the beach in order to be discovered, in return of which cruelty the General marched with two battalions, viz. Amherst's and the 2nd Battln. Royal A., 3 miles east of our camp in the village of St. Nicholas, setting fire to all the houses belonging thereto. Neither prisoners or cattle brought in to camp.

Source:
Unknown. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Draught Soldiers to the 60th Regiment

In the summer of 1763, having received King George's Instructions regarding the reduction of the British armies in North America, the acting generals put in motion their plan for augmenting the three regiments that would remain guarding Quebec. It was decided the 15th, 27th, and 2d Battalion, 60th Royal American Regiment would be assigned this task.

An analysis of the official Subsistence Rolls of the 78th Regiment reveals approximately 358 soldiers remained in North America for this duty; some were volunteers, others were called upon because of the time remaining on their current enlistment contracts. And while the exact numbers of soldiers transferring to the 2d Battalion, 60th R.A. Regiment cannot be positively identified [due to incomplete and ambiguous reporting on multiple levels,] we can account for 141 draught soldiers from Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Highlanders that joined them that summer. 

Draughts of the 78th Regiment
The following names of soldiers in the 2d Battalion, 60th R.A. Regiment, listed with their company commanders, are synonymous with the names of soldiers in the 78th Regiment at the time of its disbandment. This muster is for 182 days ending 24 April 1765, the earliest available rolls after 1 September 1763, the date by which most of Colonel Fraser's men had transferred.

Our research indicates nine original companies for this duty; however, muster rolls are only available for eight companies during this reporting period.

Colonel James Murray's Company
Reporting at Ticonderoga, 3 October 1765
1. Drummer Alexander Kennedy
2. Private Alexander Cameron
3. Private Alexander Cameron
4. Private Alexander Cameron
5. Private John Cameron
6. Private William Cameron
7. Private Angus Cameron
8. Private William Fraser
9. Private William Forbes
10. Private John Gunn
11. Private Alexander Johnson
12. Private James Knight
13. Private John McDonald
14. Private Murdoch McKinzie
15. Private Donald McKinzie
16. Private Donald McDonald
17. Private Alexander McDonald
18. Private Even McPhee
19. Private James McKinzie
20. Private Walter Simpson

Colonel Frederick Haldiman's Company
Reporting at Crown Point, 20 September 1765
21. Private Hector Cameron
22. Private James McDonald
23. Private John Chisolm
24. Private Alexander Fraser
25. Private David Fulerton
26. Private John McKenzie
27. Private Alexander McPherson
28. Private Donald McPherson
29. Private John McPherson
30. Private John McLeod
31. Private Donald McLeod
32. Private James McIntosh
33. Private John McIntosh
34. Private Arthur Rose
35. Private James Smith
36. Private James Wright
37. Private James McDonald
38. Private Peter MacDonald

Captain Thomas Barnsly's Company
Reporting at Fort Oswegatchie, 24 July 1765
39. Corporal Gregor Mcgregor
40. Drummer John Provan
41. Private Donald Black
42. Private Donald Campbele
43. Private Roderick Ferguson
44. Private Duncan Ferguson
45. Private Hugh Grant
46. Private John Gray
47. Private Duncan Gillis
48. Private Coal Henderson
49. Private James Lamb
50. Private John Mcaybin
51. Private Allan McDougall
52. Private John McArthur
53. Private Niel McArthur
54. Private Donald McArthur
55. Private Donald McMillan
56. Private John Munro
57. Private Malcolm McLeod
58. Private Donald Thompson
59. Private William McLeod

Captain Robert Bayard's Company
Reporting at Fort George, New York, 12 August 1765
60. Private Finly Campbell
61. Private William Cameron
62. Private John Fletcher
63. Private John McGilora
64. Private James McPherson
65. Private John Stuart
66. Private John Strachan
67. Private George Thomson
68. Private John McLeod

Captain John Bradstreet's Company
Reporting at Crown Point, 28 September 1765
69. Drummer Duncan McKenzie
70. Private John Brown
71. Private Duncan Campbell
72. Private Alexander Fraser
73. Private Alexander Fraser
74. Private Donald Fraser
75. Private Duncan Fraser
76. Private James Fraser
77. Private Hugh Fraser
78. Private James McNouloch
79. Private Collin McCulloch
80. Private Duncan McCra
81. Private Alexander McKenzie
82. Private Duncan McKenzie
83. Private Donald McKenzie
84. Private Alexander McPherson
85. Private John McGregor
86. Private Petter McGregor
87. Private Malcolm McGregor

Captain Robert Brigstock's Company
Reporting at Fort William Augustus, 25 June 1765
88. Serjeant Allan MacDonald
89. Serjeant William Watson
90. Private Donald Cameron
91. Private William Fraser
92. Private Hugh Fraser
93. Private John Fraser
94. Private John Fraser
95. Private John Fraser
96. Private William Grubb
97. Private John MacDonald
98. Private Hugh Munro
99. Private Hugh Ross
100. Private William Stewart
101. Private Lachline Sinclair
102. Private Peter Macdonald

Captain John Brown's Company
Reporting at Fort William Augustus, 25 July 1765
103. Drummer Thomas Fraser
104. Private Alexander Baine
105. Private John Chisolm
106. Private Donald Cameron
107. Private Duncan Cameron
108. Private John Cameron
109. Private Donald Cameron
110. Private Donald Campbell
111. Private Alexander Ferguson
112. Private Hugh Fraser
113. Private James Fraser
114. Private Lewis Grant
115. Private John Livingston
116. Private John Mackay
117. Private Alexander MacDonald
118. Private William Mills
119. Private Donald Ross
120. Private Ranald Johnston
121. Private Angus MacIntosh

Captain Samuel Holland's Company
Reporting at Fort William Augustus, 25 July 1765
122. Drummer John McDonell
123. Private Archibald Bochanan
124. Private John Cameron
125. Private Donald Campbell
126. Private John Clark
127. Private Angus Fletcher
128. Private John Fraser
129. Private John Forbes
130. Private John Kennedy
131. Private John McBean
132. Private Duncan McDougal
133. Private Donald McDonald
134. Private John McDonell
135. Private John McIntosh
136. Private Duncan McNicall
137. Private John Mcpherson
138. Private William Ross
139. Private John Smith
140. Private John Mcpherson
141. Private Hugh McDonald

Notes:
1. Alexander Kennedy appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
39. Gregor Mcgregor appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
40. John Provan appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
48. Colin Henderson.
50. John McBain.
58. Donald Thompson died 27 December 1764.
54. William McLeod deserted 9 June 1765 at Fort Oswegatchie.
59. John McGillivrae.
69. Duncan McKenzie appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763. He deserted 1 October 1764 near Crown Point.
78. James McNulloch.
80. Duncan McCraw.
88. Allan McDonnel appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
89. William Watson appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
116. John McKay.
117. Alexander McDonald.
120. Ranald Johnson discharged 24 April 1765 at Fort William Augustus.
121. Angus MacIntosh died 15 July 1765 at Fort William Augustus.
123. Archibald Buchanan.
140. John Mcpherson transferred 24 April 1765 at Fort William Augustus to unk.
141. Hugh McDonald deserted 2 June 1765 at Fort William Augustus.

Private Duncan Cumming discharged from Captain Brigstock's Company 29 March 1765; however, his name does not appear on this muster roll.
- McDonald/McDonell surnames were used interchangeably.

Sources:
War Office Records. 2nd Battalion, 60th Foot, 1764-1783. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists. TNA, W.O. 12/6935.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Sunday, September 16, 2018

Surname Variations in the 78th Regiment

The company clerks for the 78th Regiment did a wonderful job in recording the many different surnames for over 1500 soldiers during their stay in North America. And we would expect to see some variations throughout the hundreds of documents they were charged with upkeeping. From pay accounts to invalid lists and even muster rolls, while many of the surnames are synonymous with present-day spelling, we've uncovered the following variations throughout the Regiment, probably differing with each clerk depending on who the particular scribe may have been. We hope this list assists in your research, and be sure to let us know in the comments section below if we've missed any names. We'll be sure to get those added for you.

Surname Variations in the 78th Regiment

Beaton, Beatton

Bochanan, Buchanan

Brown, Browne

Cairy, Keary

Campbel, Campbele, Campbell, Campble

Camaron, Cameron, Camron

Canvin, Kinnavin

Carmichael, Carmichail

Carr, Kerr

Chisholm, Chisolm

Clark, Clarke, Clerk

Cormack, Cormak, Cormake

Cumming, Cummings, Cummins

Davison, Davidson

Fergison, Ferguson

Forbes, Forbis

Forsyth, Forsythe,

Fraser, Frasier, Frazer

Fulerton, Fullerton

Gun, Gunn

Harley, Hearly

Hutcheson, Hutchinson

Johnson, Johnston

Irving, Irwin

Kenady, Kenedy, Kennedy

Law, Lowe

Levoche, Levock

McAlester, McAlister, McAllester

McAllum, McCallum

McAuley, McCauley

McBain, McBaine, McBean, Mcaybin

McCall, McCole, McColl

McCarly, McErbie

Mcra, McCraw, McGrah

McDougal, McDougall

McFarlane, McFarlin

McGibbans, McGibbons

McGilbray, McGiliveroy, McGilora, McGilvray, McGilleray, McGillivray, McGillvray, McGilavrie

McGregar, McGregor, McGrigor

McIntire, McIntyre

Mckay, Mckey

McKenon, McKinnon, McKinven, McKinvin

McLachlan, Mclachlin, McLaughlin

McMillen, McMullen

McNab, McNabb

McNaughton, McNorton

McNicall, McNicoll

McNouloch, McNulloch

McPhie, McPhii

McQueen, McQuin

McTormet, McTormitt

MacDonald, Mackdonald, McDonald*

Mack crae, McCrae

Mack Lean, MackLean, MacLean, McLea, McLean, McLay

MackLeod, Mcleod

Mack queen, Mcqueen

MackDonnel, McDonel, McDonell*

Mackenzie, McEnzie, McKenzie, McKinn, McKinzey, McKinzie

Mackay, McKay

MacLeod, McLeod, McLoud

Mackniel, McNeal, McNiel

Martin, Martine

Milles, Mills

Mitchal, Mitchell

Monro, Munro, Munroe

More, Moore

Morrow, Mourow

Mustard, Muster'd

Nichols, Nicoll

Robertson, Robinson*

Simson, Simpson

Steward, Stewart, Stuart

Strachen, Strauchen

Taveish, Tavish

Thomson, Thompson

Tolmie, Tolmay, Tolmey

Vass, Vauss, Wass

Weir, Wier

Note: McDonald/McDonell, Robertson/Robinson were used interchangeably.

Sources:
War Office Records. Muster Books and Paylists: General, 15th Regiment, 1760-1767. LAC, W.O. 12, vol. 3228, Microfilm C-9202.

War Office Records. 2nd Battalion, 60th Foot, 1764-1783. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists. TNA, W.O. 12/6935.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Six

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
August 1st. 1759. The weather continues to be very hot ; little done ; posted in a picquetted orchard.

2nd. Weather as yesterday. By this day's orders it appears that the General is not very well satisfied with the manner the Grenadiers attacked, as they went on with too great precipitation, also before the troops from the eastward of Montmorency could form to support them. Advanced in so great a hurry that is was impossible to preserve silence or method, not pay proper regard to the directions given them by their commanding officers, which is the very essence of military discipline. We took possession of a redoubt and a 5 gun battery at the foot of the precipice, but was obliged to abandon it without nailing the cannon.

Some imputes this, as follows, to be the reason of the Grenadiers' mistake, viz. that the sailors who landed them huzzaed that the Grenadiers from Orleans and Montmorency had joined. And that a certain captain ordered his drummers to beat the march without the desire of the Commanding Officer, which occasioned the miscarriage of the day. A flag of truce from town with a very antick letter from the French governor relating the prisoners taken at Montmorency.

By intelligence from Admiral Holms, a large body of the enemy are above the town, and is supposed means to cross. This night posted as the former.

3rd. The weather continues hot ; little done ; remained at our post this night in order to march in the morning.

4th. Marched at two o'clock this morning from our cantonments to Village de Couleur where we arrived by break of day ; surrounded several houses, found no person. About 8 o'clock saw a few Canadians and Indians, but could not come up with them. Drove horses, cows, and sheep to camp. On our arrival in camp, was informed of a flag of truce from town with letters for the French prisoners, which is said were all returned unopened. Received orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march against to-morrow's evening with the 15th regt. and 200 Marines under the command of Brigadier-Gen. Murray.

5th. All this day under orders of marching. At twelve o'clock this night marched with the 15th regt. and 200 marines to Goram's post, where we remained from 10 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock evening of the 6th inst. On the beach waiting the return of flat-bottomed boats, which did not arrive for fear of being discovered, as our embarkation was to be made with the greatest secrecy ; when we thought we were liable to be discovered we drew off from the beach, and took position in some houses about a mile west of Goram's post.

6th Marched from last night's posts, and crossed the River Else Chemin with the 15th regt. and 200 marines ; about one hour thereafter, embarked on board the Sunderland man-of-war, and the remaining part of the troops distributed to the different vessels proportionate to the vessels' accomodation, where the whole remained all night.

7th. Remained on board the Sunderland man-of-war till three o'clock this evening, when Capt. Simon Fraser's co. of Light Infantry were ordered to be embarked on board the sloop Good Intent. A fine open country on both sides of the river, 18 leagues above or west of the town. At twelve o'clock this night were ordered to be ready to embark on board the flat-bottom boats ; counter-ordered at two o'clock in the morning of the 8th inst.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.