Monday, September 17, 2018

Draught Soldiers to the 60th Regiment

In the summer of 1763, having received King George's Instructions regarding the reduction of the British armies in North America, the acting generals put in motion their plan for augmenting the three regiments that would remain guarding Quebec. It was decided the 15th, 27th, and 2d Battalion, 60th Royal American Regiment would be assigned this task.

An analysis of the official Subsistence Rolls of the 78th Regiment reveals approximately 358 soldiers remained in North America for this duty; some were volunteers, others were called upon because of the time remaining on their current enlistment contracts. And while the exact numbers of soldiers transferring to the 2d Battalion, 60th R.A. Regiment cannot be positively identified [due to incomplete and ambiguous reporting on multiple levels,] we can account for 142 draught soldiers from Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Highlanders that joined them that summer. 

Draughts of the 78th Regiment
The following names of soldiers in the 2d Battalion, 60th R.A. Regiment, listed with their company commanders, are synonymous with the names of soldiers in the 78th Regiment at the time of its disbandment. This muster is for 182 days ending 24 April 1765, the earliest available rolls after 1 September 1763, the date by which most of Colonel Fraser's men had transferred.

Our research indicates nine original companies for this duty; however, muster rolls are only available for eight companies during this reporting period.

Colonel James Murray's Company
Reporting at Ticonderoga, 3 October 1765
1. Drummer Alexander Kennedy
2. Private Alexander Cameron
3. Private Alexander Cameron
4. Private Alexander Cameron
5. Private John Cameron
6. Private William Cameron
7. Private Angus Cameron
8. Private William Fraser
9. Private William Forbes
10. Private John Gunn
11. Private Alexander Johnson
12. Private James Knight
13. Private John McDonald
14. Private Murdoch McKinzie
15. Private Donald McKinzie
16. Private Donald McDonald
17. Private Alexander McDonald
18. Private Even McPhee
19. Private James McKinzie
20. Private Walter Simpson

Colonel Frederick Haldiman's Company
Reporting at Crown Point, 20 September 1765
21. Private Hector Cameron
22. Private James McDonald
23. Private John Chisolm
24. Private Alexander Fraser
25. Private David Fulerton
26. Private John McKenzie
27. Private Alexander McPherson
28. Private Donald McPherson
29. Private John McPherson
30. Private John McLeod
31. Private Donald McLeod
32. Private James McIntosh
33. Private John McIntosh
34. Private Arthur Rose
35. Private James Smith
36. Private James Wright
37. Private James McDonald
38. Private Peter MacDonald

Captain Thomas Barnsly's Company
Reporting at Fort Oswegatchie, 24 July 1765
39. Corporal Gregor Mcgregor
40. Drummer John Provan
41. Private Donald Black
42. Private Donald Campbele
43. Private Roderick Ferguson
44. Private Duncan Ferguson
45. Private Hugh Grant
46. Private John Gray
47. Private Duncan Gillis
48. Private Coal Henderson
49. Private James Lamb
50. Private John Mcaybin
51. Private Allan McDougall
52. Private John McArthur
53. Private Niel McArthur
54. Private Donald McArthur
55. Private Donald McMillan
56. Private John Munro
57. Private Malcolm McLeod
58. Private Donald Thompson
59. Private William McLeod

Captain Robert Bayard's Company
Reporting at Fort George, New York, 12 August 1765
60. Private Finly Campbell
61. Private William Cameron
62. Private John Fletcher
63. Private John McGilora
64. Private James McPherson
65. Private John Stuart
66. Private John Strachan
67. Private George Thomson
68. Private John McLeod

Captain John Bradstreet's Company
Reporting at Crown Point, 28 September 1765
69. Drummer Duncan McKenzie
70. Private John Brown
71. Private Duncan Campbell
72. Private Alexander Fraser
73. Private Alexander Fraser
74. Private Donald Fraser
75. Private Duncan Fraser
76. Private James Fraser
77. Private Hugh Fraser
78. Private James McNouloch
79. Private Collin McCulloch
80. Private Duncan McCra
81. Private Alexander McKenzie
82. Private Duncan McKenzie
83. Private Donald McKenzie
84. Private Alexander McPherson
85. Private John McGregor
86. Private Petter McGregor
87. Private Malcolm McGregor

Captain Robert Brigstock's Company
Reporting at Fort William Augustus, 25 June 1765
88. Serjeant Allan MacDonald
89. Serjeant William Watson
90. Private Donald Cameron
91. Private William Fraser
92. Private Hugh Fraser
93. Private John Fraser
94. Private John Fraser
95. Private John Fraser
96. Private William Grubb
97. Private John MacDonald
98. Private Hugh Munro
99. Private Hugh Ross
100. Private William Stewart
101. Private Lachline Sinclair
102. Private Peter Macdonald
102a Private Duncan Cumming

Captain John Brown's Company
Reporting at Fort William Augustus, 25 July 1765
103. Drummer Thomas Fraser
104. Private Alexander Baine
105. Private John Chisolm
106. Private Donald Cameron
107. Private Duncan Cameron
108. Private John Cameron
109. Private Donald Cameron
110. Private Donald Campbell
111. Private Alexander Ferguson
112. Private Hugh Fraser
113. Private James Fraser
114. Private Lewis Grant
115. Private John Livingston
116. Private John Mackay
117. Private Alexander MacDonald
118. Private William Mills
119. Private Donald Ross
120. Private Ranald Johnston
121. Private Angus MacIntosh

Captain Samuel Holland's Company
Reporting at Fort William Augustus, 25 July 1765
122. Drummer John McDonell
123. Private Archibald Bochanan
124. Private John Cameron
125. Private Donald Campbell
126. Private John Clark
127. Private Angus Fletcher
128. Private John Fraser
129. Private John Forbes
130. Private John Kennedy
131. Private John McBean
132. Private Duncan McDougal
133. Private Donald McDonald
134. Private John McDonell
135. Private John McIntosh
136. Private Duncan McNicall
137. Private John Mcpherson
138. Private William Ross
139. Private John Smith
140. Private John Mcpherson
141. Private Hugh McDonald

Notes:
1. Alexander Kennedy appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
39. Gregor Mcgregor appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
40. John Provan appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
48. Colin Henderson.
50. John McBain.
58. Donald Thompson died 27 December 1764.
54. William McLeod deserted 9 June 1765 at Fort Oswegatchie.
59. John McGillivrae.
69. Duncan McKenzie appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763. He deserted 1 October 1764 near Crown Point.
78. James McNulloch.
80. Duncan McCraw.
88. Allan McDonnel appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
89. William Watson appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
102a Private Duncan Cumming discharged from Captain Brigstock's Company 29 March 1765; however, his name does not appear on this muster roll.
116. John McKay.
117. Alexander McDonald.
120. Ranald Johnson discharged 24 April 1765 at Fort William Augustus.
121. Angus MacIntosh died 15 July 1765 at Fort William Augustus.
123. Archibald Buchanan.
140. John Mcpherson transferred 24 April 1765 at Fort William Augustus to unk.
141. Hugh McDonald deserted 2 June 1765 at Fort William Augustus.

- McDonald/McDonell surnames were used interchangeably.

Sources:
War Office Records. 2nd Battalion, 60th Foot, 1764-1783. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists. TNA, W.O. 12/6935.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Sunday, September 16, 2018

Surname Variations in the 78th Regiment

The company clerks for the 78th Regiment did a wonderful job in recording the many different surnames for over 1500 soldiers during their stay in North America. And we would expect to see some variations throughout the hundreds of documents they were charged with upkeeping. From pay accounts to invalid lists and even muster rolls, while many of the surnames are synonymous with today's spelling, we've uncovered the following variations throughout the Regiment, probably differing with each clerk depending on who the particular scribe may have been. We hope this list assists in your research, and be sure to let us know in the comments section below if we've missed any names. We'll be sure to get those added for you.

Surname Variations in the 78th Regiment

Beaton, Beatton

Bochanan, Buchanan

Brown, Browne

Cairy, Keary

Campbel, Campbele, Campbell, Campble

Camaron, Cameron, Camron

Canvin, Kinnavin

Carmichael, Carmichail

Carr, Kerr

Chisholm, Chisolm

Clark, Clarke, Clerk

Cormack, Cormak, Cormake

Cumming, Cummings, Cummins

Davison, Davidson

Fergison, Ferguson

Forbes, Forbis

Forsyth, Forsythe,

Fraser, Frasier, Frazer

Fulerton, Fullerton

Gun, Gunn

Harley, Hearly

Hutcheson, Hutchinson

Johnson, Johnston

Irving, Irwin

Kenady, Kenedy, Kennedy

Law, Lowe

Levoche, Levock

McAlester, McAlister, McAllester

McAllum, McCallum

McAuley, McCauley

McBain, McBaine, McBean, Mcaybin

McCall, McCole, McColl

McCarly, McErbie

Mcra, McCraw, McGrah

McDougal, McDougall

McFarlane, McFarlin

McGibbans, McGibbons

McGilbray, McGiliveroy, McGilora, McGilvray, McGilleray, McGillivray, McGillvray, McGilavrie

McGregar, McGregor, McGrigor

McIntire, McIntyre

Mckay, Mckey

McKenon, McKinnon, McKinven, McKinvin

McLachlan, Mclachlin, McLaughlin

McMillen, McMullen

McNab, McNabb

McNaughton, McNorton

McNicall, McNicoll

McNouloch, McNulloch

McPhie, McPhii

McQueen, McQuin

McTormet, McTormitt

MacDonald, Mackdonald, McDonald*

Mack crae, McCrae

Mack Lean, MackLean, MacLean, McLea, McLean, McLay

MackLeod, Mcleod

Mack queen, Mcqueen

MackDonnel, McDonel, McDonell*

Mackenzie, McEnzie, McKenzie, McKinn, McKinzey, McKinzie

Mackay, McKay

MacLeod, McLeod, McLoud

Mackniel, McNeal, McNiel

Martin, Martine

Milles, Mills

Mitchal, Mitchell

Monro, Munro, Munroe

More, Moore

Morrow, Mourow

Mustard, Muster'd

Nichols, Nicoll

Robertson, Robinson*

Simson, Simpson

Steward, Stewart, Stuart

Strachen, Strauchen

Taveish, Tavish

Thomson, Thompson

Tolmie, Tolmay, Tolmey

Vass, Vauss, Wass

Weir, Wier

Note: McDonald/McDonell, Robertson/Robinson were used interchangeably.

Sources:
War Office Records. Muster Books and Paylists: General, 15th Regiment, 1760-1767. LAC, W.O. 12, vol. 3228, Microfilm C-9202.

War Office Records. 2nd Battalion, 60th Foot, 1764-1783. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists. TNA, W.O. 12/6935.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Six

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
August 1st. 1759. The weather continues to be very hot ; little done ; posted in a picquetted orchard.

2nd. Weather as yesterday. By this day's orders it appears that the General is not very well satisfied with the manner the Grenadiers attacked, as they went on with too great precipitation, also before the troops from the eastward of Montmorency could form to support them. Advanced in so great a hurry that is was impossible to preserve silence or method, not pay proper regard to the directions given them by their commanding officers, which is the very essence of military discipline. We took possession of a redoubt and a 5 gun battery at the foot of the precipice, but was obliged to abandon it without nailing the cannon.

Some imputes this, as follows, to be the reason of the Grenadiers' mistake, viz. that the sailors who landed them huzzaed that the Grenadiers from Orleans and Montmorency had joined. And that a certain captain ordered his drummers to beat the march without the desire of the Commanding Officer, which occasioned the miscarriage of the day. A flag of truce from town with a very antick letter from the French governor relating the prisoners taken at Montmorency.

By intelligence from Admiral Holms, a large body of the enemy are above the town, and is supposed means to cross. This night posted as the former.

3rd. The weather continues hot ; little done ; remained at our post this night in order to march in the morning.

4th. Marched at two o'clock this morning from our cantonments to Village de Couleur where we arrived by break of day ; surrounded several houses, found no person. About 8 o'clock saw a few Canadians and Indians, but could not come up with them. Drove horses, cows, and sheep to camp. On our arrival in camp, was informed of a flag of truce from town with letters for the French prisoners, which is said were all returned unopened. Received orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march against to-morrow's evening with the 15th regt. and 200 Marines under the command of Brigadier-Gen. Murray.

5th. All this day under orders of marching. At twelve o'clock this night marched with the 15th regt. and 200 marines to Goram's post, where we remained from 10 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock evening of the 6th inst. On the beach waiting the return of flat-bottomed boats, which did not arrive for fear of being discovered, as our embarkation was to be made with the greatest secrecy ; when we thought we were liable to be discovered we drew off from the beach, and took position in some houses about a mile west of Goram's post.

6th Marched from last night's posts, and crossed the River Else Chemin with the 15th regt. and 200 marines ; about one hour thereafter, embarked on board the Sunderland man-of-war, and the remaining part of the troops distributed to the different vessels proportionate to the vessels' accomodation, where the whole remained all night.

7th. Remained on board the Sunderland man-of-war till three o'clock this evening, when Capt. Simon Fraser's co. of Light Infantry were ordered to be embarked on board the sloop Good Intent. A fine open country on both sides of the river, 18 leagues above or west of the town. At twelve o'clock this night were ordered to be ready to embark on board the flat-bottom boats ; counter-ordered at two o'clock in the morning of the 8th inst.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Invalid Soldiers of the 78th Regiment, 1759-1763

Invalid soldiers were typically injured soldiers fully capable of performing light garrison duties, but not cleared to participate in extended campaigns. They were given duties such as gate guard, cook's assistant, or night watch patrols until such a time when funding and availability permitted their transport back home to Royal Chelsea Hospital in London to attend to their injuries. However, some of these men of Fraser's 78th Regiment, as described by Governor Murray in a letter dated October 20, 1762, were certainly not well off and appear to be in a very bad way.

"...Frasers Regt. is not as strong as it appears to be on paper, I have the honor to inclose a Return of the Invalids of that Corps who are unfit for Garrison duty, and there are many besides who are incapable of taking the field. As those unfit for any duty are kept here at a great expense to the Crown, I did propose to Major Abercrombie to send them Home by the Aldborough, but he told me he believed it was not your intention to discharge any of them, I therefore conclude there are particular Reasons for keeping them on the Roles, some of them want legs, & some arms."

In an excerpt from this December 1762 letter, Governor Murray continues in addressing the situation. Given the time of year, winter freeze most likely forced his decision to refrain from sending the men home at that time.

"...There will not now probably be an opportunity to send home the Invalids of the 78th Regt. 'till the disolution of the Corps, if it shall turn out otherwise, I shall be carefull that none are discharged, but real objects of compassion."

Invalids
The following is a collection of invalid soldiers from Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Regiment extracted from various documents covering 1759-1763.

1. Title: Return of Invalids put on board the Nightingale Man of War who Sailed from Louisbourg Harbour June 11th 1759.

Regiments:
Artillery: 2
22 Regiment: 10
35 Regiment: 6
40 Regiment: 10
43 Regiment: 10
45 Regiment: 11
47 Regiment: 1
63 Regiment: 10

Total: 60

2. Title: Return of Invalids under the Command of Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. Embarked on board the Unanimous Transport, New York, 9th January 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Archd. Stewart
Robert Ross
John Cameron
John Mcleron
Donald Livingstone
John McLeod
George Crookshanks
Hector McTeal
Hugh McMullen
Neal McIntosh
Alexr. McCall
John McDougall
John Cameron

The above men are all paid to the Twenty fourth December 1759, and have signed to that purpose on the back of their Discharges, and Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. has received for them sixty one days pay to the Twenty third of February Inclusive. And he has my orders upon his arrival at Portsmouth, or wheresoever he may arrive to notify his coming to the Secretary at War, waiting his orders for his preceding to London, either by sea if there should be an order for it or by Land agreeable to the march route, he may Receive for that purpose. He is directed upon his arrival at London to Deliver over said Invalids to the Agents of the Regiment they belong to and to pay over to them the pay he may still have in his hands belonging to those men.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
James Taylor
John McDonald

The above [two] men are Discharged and not Recommended to Chelsea, but have Desired passage to England.

[signed]
Jeff Amherst

3. Title: Return of Invalids to be discharged, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Alexr. Kenedy: Old Age
Murdoch McKinzey: Old Age
Wm. McLeod: Old Age & Rhumatic
David Gallen: Old Age
Danl. Campble: Old Age
Robt. Monroe: Old Age
Keneth McLeod: Old Age
Alexr. McDougald: Old Age
John Fraser: Old Age
Danl. Black: Old Age
James Fraser: Old Age
John McNab: Old Age
Niel Beaton: Old Age
Archd. McQuin: Old Age

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of the Invalids to be Discharged
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

4. Title: Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Duncan McGregar
Peter Thompson

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York.
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

5. Title: Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Saml. McDonald
Peter McNiel
John Campbel
James Tolmay
Charles Robinson
Laughlin McIntosh
David Morrison
Geo: Sutherland
Alexr. McDonald

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

6. Title: Return of Invalids Under the Command of Capt. Gordon of the Royal Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8 Decemr. 1760.

78th Regiment
Andrew Kennedy
Neal McKay
Charles Robinson
James Tolmie
David Morrison

The above men are all paid to the 24th Decemr. 1760 & have signed to that purpose on the back of their Discharges; Capt. Gordon of the Royal Regt. has received for them sixty one days pay to the 23d. Feby. Inclusively, and he has my orders upon his Arrival at Portsmouth, or wheresoever he may Arrive, to apply to the Commanding Naval Officer, for a Convoy to conduct the vessell, in which the said Invalids are, up the River Thames to London, & Notifying his Arrival to His Majesty's Secretary at War; He is likewise Directed upon his Arrival in London, to deliver over said Invalids to the Agents of the Regts. they belong to, & to pay over to them the pay he may still have in his hands belonging to those men. Some of these men have been in the Hospital here, and so long Absent from their Regiments that they could not be cloathed, they have received an allowance in Lieu of the cloathing that was due, that they might be entirely cleared, & not have any Demands to claim on their Arrival in England.

[signed]
Jeff Amherst

Endorsed: Return of Invalids Under the Command of Captain Gordon, Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8th Decemr. 1760

Enclosed to Lord Barrington, of said Month.

7. Title: A List of Invalids of the Seventy Eight Regiment unfit for any sort of duty, 11 November 1762.

Col. Fraser's Company
Murdock McKenzie

Major Abercrombie's Company
Niel Beatton
Donald McDonald
John Anderson
Alexander McKay
John McIver
John McLeod
Donald Ross

Major Campbell's Company
John Campbell - Corporal
Duncan Campbell
Robert Munroe
John Kenedy
John Ferguson
James Lamb
Donald Cameron
Kennitt McLeod
Peter Hill
John Clerk

Captain Jno McDonnell's Company
Donald McDonald
Donald Stuart
John McDonnel

Captain Simon Fraser's Company
John McKay
Alexander Cormack
Hector McNeil
Donald Munroe

Captain Hugh Fraser's Company
Samuel Cameron
Arch'b McQueen

Captain Hugh Cameron's Company
Alexander Fraser
Evan McMillan
Geo'r Sutherland
James Rhind
Alexander McDougal
John Law
Alex'r Ramsay
Donald Gun Drum'r
John McPhie
Donald McAlister
John Fraser

Captain John Fraser's Company
Donald McGrower [possibly McGrover]
Hugh McTormit
John McKinzie

Captain John Nairn's Company
John McKay, Serj
Alexander Munroe
John McDonnel
James Henderson
William Ross

Captain Alexander Campbell's Company
Donald McPherson
Donald McPherson

Captain Archibald Campbell's Company
Donald Black
Lachlan McIntosh
David Gollan 
John Brown
John Fraser
William Rose

A true copy from the regimental return. 
Thomas Mills, Town Major. Nov 11th

8. Title: Detachment Invalids: Detachment of 78th Regt. belonging to companies in continent, August 1763.

Time of Entry: 16 Aug
Number of Days Victulled: 7

James Gunn, Drummer
Dond. Thompson, Pvt.
Dond. Fraser, Pvt.
Dun Cumming, Pvt.
John Fraser, [illegible] [21 days]
James Robinson, Serjt.
Simon Fraser, Drummer
Alexr. McArthur, Pvt.
Dond. Cuthbert, Pvt.
Lachn. McIntosh, Pvt.
Allan McDonell, Serjt.
Dond. Burke, Drummer
Jno. Coll
Wm. Moore
John Clarke, Serjt.
Alexr. Fraser, Drummer
John Fraser, Private
Dond. McQueen, Pvt.
John Fraser, Drummer
John McDonell, Private
Rand. McDonell, Pvt.
Jas. Crawford, Pvt.
Jno. McDonell, Pvt.
Mary Kennedy

Time of Entry: Aug. 30
Number of Days Victulled: 7

Niel Mahan
Lachn. McKenon
Dun. McDonald.

Sources:
War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids put on board the Nightingale Man of War, 11 June 1759." Correspondence between the Governors of Cape Breton Island and the Commander-in-Chief, New York, 175801762. W.O. 34, vol. 17. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids under the Command of Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. Embarked on board the Unanimity Transport, New York, 9th January 1760." Unknown. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids to be Discharged, 1 May 1760." Correspondence between Commander-in-Chief and Director of Hospitals and various officers in charge of vessels on the Lakes, 1757-63, 1759. W.O. 34, vol. 64. LAC.

Ibid. "Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York, 1 May 1760."

Ibid. "Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal, 1 May 1760."

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids Under the Command of Capt. Gordon of the Royal Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8 Decemr. 1760." Correspondence between Commander-in-Chief and Masters of vessels, etc. 1757-1763. W.O. 34, vol. 60. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "A List of Invalids of the Seventy Eight Regiment unfit for any sort of duty, 11 November 1762." Letters from the Governor of Quebec to the Commanders-in-Chief, New York, 1760-1763. W.O. 34, vol. 2. LAC.

Treasury Board Papers, "Detachment Invalids: Detachment of 78th Regt. belonging to companies in continent, August 1763." Subsistence rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th) 1763. T.1, vol. 422. LAC.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.


Monday, September 3, 2018

Private Duncan Cumming, 60th, 78th Regiments

Born in Scotland [date/town unknown], Private Duncan Cumming enlisted in the army and initially served six years with the 78th Foot in various campaigns in North America. At the conclusion of the war in the summer of 1763, his name appears on two separate muster reports as having received seven days subsistence pay: 78th Foot: A Detachment of Invalids, dated 16 August, and in Colonel Fraser's Company on the Subsistence rolls of Fraser's Highlanders, dated 23 August. At this time, it is uncertain as to why the two separate musters. About 25 August, he, then, transferred to the 2d Battalion, 60th Foot, and selected to remain in North America [along with the 15th Foot and 27th Foot] to continue to provide a guard for the government in Montreal, where he served an additional 19 months in Captain Robert Brigstock's Company and discharged on 29 March 1765.

Discharge Certificate
[front page]
By Captain Robert Bayard Esq.
Commanding the Second Battn of the Royal American Regiment

These are to certify that the Bearer hereof Duncan Cumming having Served Honestly and faithfully for the space of Eight years, part of which in the Late 78th & part in the above said Regiment and in Captn Robert Brigstocks Compy, but having found a good man in his place, he is hereby Discharged, Having first Received a just account of all his pay & appears of pay cloathing of all Sort, and all other of his just Demands from the time of his Entering in the said Regiment to this day, being the Day of his Discharge as appears by his Receipt on the other side.

Given under my Hand at Montreal this 29th day of March 1765.

[signed]
Robt Bayard

To all whom it may concern

[back page]
I do hereby acknowledge to have Received a just account of all My pay arrears of pay cloathing of all Sorts, and all other Demands from the time of My Entering in the Regiment to this day, being the day of My Discharge.
Witness My hand this 29th day of March 1765

[signed]
Duncan Cumming

Personal Affidavit
Province of
Lower Canada
to wit:

Personally appeared before me - 
James Hughes, Esquire, one of His Majesty's Commissioners of the Peace for the District of Montreal, Duncan Cumming, who being sworn on the Holy Evangelists, made Oath and with that he has not as yet received His Majesty's bounty of Lands for his past services in this Province or in any other of His Majesty's Colonies in America, nor any gratuity whatever in lieu thereof, and to which he is entitled agreeable to the Royal Instructions for himself, his Wife, and seven Children namely, Margaritte, aged 25, Flora 19, Janet 18, Duncan 17, Isabel 15, Alexander 12, & John 6 years 1.

[signed]
Duncan Cuming

Sworn Before me at
Montreal this 29th Day
of March, 1800.

[signed]
James Hughes: J.P.

Certificate of Claims
Certificate of Claims for part of the waste Lands of the Crown by Duncan Cumming, on behalf of himself, his Wife & seven Children.
That he served in the 78th Regiment at the Reduction of Louisburgh and Quebec ~ 
That he also served in the 60th Regiment, and at all times in the Militia particularly at the taking of Colonel Allen prisoner in the year 1775. ~
That he had been settled in Canada upwards of thirty two years, is now far advanced in years and in low circumstances. ~
That he is well known to us and worthy of His Majesty's Bounty. ~ 

Montreal, 29th March 1800.

Except as to the first article
I know the rest ~

[signed]
James McGill
Richd. Dobie
Edw. Wm. Gray

Note: His official discharge paperwork from Colonel Fraser's 78th Regiment has never been located, and the claim of militia service in 1775 remains unsubstantiated.

Census Returns
January 1785, Montreal, Duncan Cummings. [Names only].

Vital Records
Marriages:
Listed as Duncan Cummings, he is most likely the same man who married Agathe Charpentier on 18 November 1771 as recorded in the parish register of the Anglican, Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, Quebec.

Note: No additional Cummings marriages located in this parish between 1766-1784

Christenings [Parish of Montreal]:
Margaret Cummins
Birth: 8 August 1773
Baptized: 12 September 1773

George Cummins
Birth: 24 May 1777
Baptized: 29 May 1777

Florence Cummins
Birth: 18 December 1778
Baptized: 24 December 1778

Jane Cummins
Birth: 5 April 1781
Baptized: 8 April 1781

Isabel Cumming [Montreal]
Baptized: 12 March 1786
Listed as daughter of Duncan Cumming of Montreal.

Note: Due diligence should be performed to confirm these are the children of Duncan and Agathe.

Notarial Records
Name: Duncan Cummings & Agathe Charpentier
Type: Autres
Record Date: 31 May 1806
Record Place: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Notary: Guy, Louis
Record Description: Compe et partage
Source Citation:
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec; Montréal, Quebec, Canada; District: Montréal; Title: Guy, Louis (1801-1842).

Name: Duncan Cummings & Agathe Charpentier
Type: Inventaire
Record Date: 6 Feb. 1806
Record Place: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Notary: Guy, Louis
Record Description: Inventaire
Source Citation:
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec; Montréal, Quebec, Canada; District: Montréal; Title: Guy, Louis (1801-1842).

Sources:
"Schedule of certificates and discharges of non-commissioned officers and soldiers reduced in America." Lower Canada Land Papers, RG 1 L 3, vol. 157, No. 52. Public Archives Canada.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

“Marriage record of Duncan Cummings and Agathe Charpentier, Nov. 1771.” Genealogie Quebec, Drouin Institute, Sept. 2018, www.genealogiequebec.com.

“List of English inhabitants in the City of Montreal in January 1785.” Civil and Provincial Secretary Lower Canada ["S" Series], 1760-1840 [RG 4, A 1, vol. 27], Microfilm C-3000, Public Archives Canada.

"Births, marriages, and deaths recorded in the register of the parish of Montreal, 1766-1787." [M.G. 8, G 19, vol. 22], Microfilm C-3023, Public Archives Canada.

Bethune, Reverend John. "Baptism of Isabel Cumming." Omissions of marriages and baptisms in the 84th Regiment. LDS FHL, SLC, UT, Microfilm: 004507724, image: 191.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Five

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
July 25th, 1759. Arrived this morning on the lower settlements of the North side, the River en Chemin, Capt. Fraser's Co. having the van. Seized about 300, including men, women and children, 150 head of cattle, some horses, and several sheep. When we came near the above camp forage was forwarded with Capt. Delaune's Company, as also the prisoners.

Major Dalling marched to Capt. Goram's house, where the detachment took post till further orders.

26th. Marched from last night's post to our cantonments, where we were informed of Capt. Delaune;s sending last night a corporal and six men with orders to Major Dalling, who were attacked on the communications by twenty Canadians (as the corporal) said. One Rigby, our surgeon's mate, who accompanied the corporal's party was killed with 2 men, 3 taken prisoners, only one escaped with the corporal, who confirmed the above, as also that on returning the corporal killed one of the Canadians.

Three of the prisoners from Capt. Delanne's Co. of those taken and sent to camp, recommended to the particular care of the captain. The evening of the 24th curt. Colonel Fraser set out with 300 men of his regt. to take prisoners, and bring cattle ; as they were marching some miles, east of Beaumont, they were fired on by one man only (as is said) which wounded the Colonel in the thigh, and broke Capt. McPherson's arm.

After arriving in camp we learnt that the Colonels van guard was fired on before day, who, according to others, retired into the wood, and he stepping to some small eminence to give directions to a part of his detachment to move on in a manner formerly directed, his voice making it known to the enemy where the commanding officer stood, three of them directed their fire up that way, which wounded the Colonel and Capt. McPherson in the right thighs. 

27th. Remained in cantonments all day ; nothing done in camp. In the night the enemy sent down one fire raft containing one hundred stages, lined with combustibles (did no harm).

28th. A deserter from the enemy to the westward of Montmorency ; little intelligence.

29th. Extreme hot weather ; 13 companys under orders all day ; it was supposed they were to cross Montmorency Falls, and attack a redoubt ; nothing was done. Capt. Ross and Lt. Nairn of Colonel Fraser's Regt. fought a duel this morning, very much to the discredit to the former.

30th. MORNING INTELLIGENCE. A deserter from one of the grenadier cos. on the Island of Orleans going over to the enemy is the reason nothing was done yesterday.

30th. a landing was to be endeavoured the 29th, consisting of two rgts. from Point Levy, and 13 cos. grenadiers from orleans, under cover of the fire of two frigates running on shore at high water, which time of the two regts. landing, the troops on the north shore were to cross Montmorency Falls, ----- Webb's regt. to march along the south shore the length of Goram's and return in the evening to their former post. The reason of which designing to draw the attention to the quarter. Posted this night by the battery as usual.

31st. At 12 o'clock this day, two catts with 6-pounders (in place of the supposed frigates) ran on shore, at which time the troops embarked in floats and in boats ; the many motions made by them gave the enemy time to assemble there in force where an attack was most probable. The two catts and the battery to the eastward of Montmorency continued firing till about five o'clock evening, when the 13 cos. Grenadiers from Orleans and the 2 regts. from Point Levy landed on the beach at which time the Montmorency troops crossed below the Falls, it being low water. The Grenadiers formed, and marched up to attack the entrenchments but by the steepness of a hill directly above them it was found impracticable, sustained a heavy fire for some minutes without their firing a shot, being obliged to retire. Amherst's and the Highlanders covered their retreat, which was done in good order, and without confusion, carrying off the wounded. The troops to the eastward of Montmorency returned to their camp with Fraser's regt., the Grenadiers to Orleans, and Amherst's to Point Levy. As the ships could not be got off there was a necessity of burning them. Killed, 38 ; wounded, 62 ; missing 1.

Faints made. Brigadier Murray commanded Anstruther's regt. and a body of Light Infantry, with orders to move on as if intending to cross above the aforesaid Falls, and if possible to effect it ; and Colonel Burton with Webb's regt. marched along the southern shore in order to DRAW THE ATTENTION OF THE ENEMY their WAY.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.