Colonel Simon Fraser, Commanding Officer
78th Regiment of Foot, 1757-63

Friday, April 20, 2018

Court Martial of Corporal Angus McDonald, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1761

Court martial of Corporal Angus McDonald, 78th Regiment
In his Sketches, Stewart of Garth maintained that the high moral code of the early Highlanders meant that misconduct was virtually unknown within their regiments. Although it is true that Highlanders feature far less frequently in the General Courts Martial records than miscreants from other battalions, it would be wrong to go to the other extreme and suggest that their ranks were filled with plaster saints. A worthy champion of this violent heritage was Corporal Angus McDonald of Fraser's Highlanders, who was brought before a General Court Martial at Quebec in September 1761.

The following is a complete transcript of that legal proceeding.

Official proceedings
Proceedings of a General Court Martial held at Quebec the 25th Day of September 1761, By Virtue of a Warrant from his Excellency Governor Murray dated the 24th said Month.

Major James Agnew President.

Members:
Captain Samuel Gardiner
Captain George Byrd
Captain Robert Rutherford
Captain John Carden
Captain Edmund Malcome
Captain John Brown
Captain Nicholas Cox
Captain James Dalrymple
Captain Thomas Smelt
Captain Robert Brigstock
Captain Henry Alt
Captain Edward Crymble

Hector Theophilus Cramache Deputy Judge Advocate.

Opening statement
The Court being duly Sworn the Prisoner Angus MacDonald of the 78th Regiment was brought before the Court and tried for quitting his Post, and robbing several of the French Inhabitants under Pretence he had orders to take Quarters for some Troops.

Deposition of Lieutenant Henry Marr
A Letter from Lieutenant Marr of the 47th Regiment dated the 21st of September at St. Lawrence to Lieutenant Mills as Town Adjutant.

St. Lawrence 21st September 1761
Dear Sir,
When I left St Francois to proceed to this Place, I was ordered by Major Irving to leave a Corporal, and two Men, as a Guard, to the King's wood; I accordingly ordered the Prisoner Corporal Macdonald of the 78th Regiment to remain there, but he either tired with Solitude, or fond of Novelty and Frolick, determined to leave his Guard and cross the River to the Parishes of St. Joachim, St. Anns, and Chateau in the North Shore, where he behaved in a very extraordinary manner; as you will see by the enclosed Letter, which fully represents the Affair, when I first heard of his being absent I imagined he had deserted, and ordered Strick Search to be made for him every where till Sunday last, when I was favoured with the enclosed relating to him.

/Signed/
Henry Marr Lieutenant
47th Regiment

Deposition of Ensign Philip Pitman
A Letter from Ensign Pitman of the 19th September dated at Chateau River

Chateau River 19th Sepr. 1761
Dear Sir,
One Angus Monro or McDonald has been up and down the Parishes of St. Joachim, St. Anns, and Chateau for this week past, imposing on the Inhabitants of said Parishes in a most Vilinous, and extraordinary manner, by extorting from them Money, Horses, and anything he had occasion for shewing as he pretended an order for so doing in writing; and sometimes on refusal threatened to beat, or put them to Death, pretending to be an officer, he is a Soldier of the 78th Regiment above the middle size, and has Caroty Hair, is of Captain Nairns Company, and I understand belongs to your Party, I this Day rode from Chateau to St. Anns privetly to apprehend him, but unfortunately he was gone over to the Island an Hour before I got there, I hope you will take all possible Care to secure him, that he may be brought to Justice, I write this Letter which I send with the Captains of Malitia of whom he got four Dollars, as he did from the Captains of Malitia of the other two Parishes.

/Signed/
Ph: Pitman

Deposition of John Morris
John Morris Soldier of the 58th Regiment was sworn and deposes, that the Prisoner is a Soldier belonging to Lieutenant Marrs Party, on the Island of Orleans, and was ordered with two other Men to take some Wood, at St. Francois in that Island, and that Lieut. Marr, having received Information the Prisoner had drawn some Money from the Captains of Militia on the North Shore, the Deponent was sent by him for them, where he saw the Houses marked with scores for Quarters and Magazines as he was informed by the Canadians that he returned, and was sent to St. Francois by Lieutenant Marr with four Men, to take him up, which he did, and Carried him to Town.

Deposition of Captain Jacques Perrault
Jacques Perrault Captain of the Militia of St. Famille in the Island of Orleans being sworn deposes, that the Prisoner came to his Parish, saying he had Orders to see what Houses in his Parish were capable of receiving Men, that he asked him for his Orders, that he said he had none, and must make a Report to the General first, that afterwards he demanded four Dollars of the Deponent and upon his saying he had none, he ordered him to get a canoe with three Men and that he would go straight to Quebec, to complain, that fearing the Consequence he offered him two which he accepted, that he commanded a Canoe to carry him over to the North Shore.

Deposition of Captain Jacques Perrault
Jean Lesarre Captain of the Militia of St. Anns being sworn deposes, that he found on his Return, from Town, the Prisoner at his House, where he had landed from St. Famille, that the Prisoner told him he must shew him the best Houses to Lodge 48 Men, and they must cut and carry to the water Side every Week 48 Cords of Wood, that he, or his Serjeant must go with him to St. Joachim what he made him assemble the whole Parish, nay even ordered the Women to appear, and said he would not Quarter Men in the Houses where there were young Women, that he demanded five Dollars, that the Deponent not having a farthing was obliged to search the whole Parish to borrow three, for which he pretended to give a Receipt, now produced, being a Scrap of paper, with some scratches on it, the Deponent further says the Prisoner was there three Days backwards and forewards in this Parish, and that he appeared to him the whole Time very much in his Senses, in the same manner he does now, and further that he ordered a Canoe to carry him back to St. Famille.

The Deponent being asked upon what pretense the Prisoner demanded the Money, says, he informed him, it was the Generals order he should have five Dollars of each Captain for his Expenses, produced five, or six Papers, which he said were these orders, and threatened to send him to Quebec, if he did not comply.

Deposition of Captain Francis Raneour
Francis Raneour Captain of the Militia of St. Joachim being sworn deposes, he was sent for by the Prisoner to a Publick House, about ¾ of a League from his, that after some Time he told him he must Quarter 48 Men, and some Officers; to the amount of Sixty, and demands four Dollars, which the Deponent protested he could not comply with, after pressing, the Man of the Publick House lent the Man four Dollars, which he gave the Prisoner, who returned him a Shilling, that he did not give a Receipt, but took his name down upon a Piece of Paper.

The Deponent being asked upon what Pretence he demanded the four Dollars, says by the Generals Order, and it would be repaid by his Secretary.

Deposition of Captain Eustache Bacon
Eustache Bacon Captain of the Militia of Chateau Richer being sworn deposes that he was sent for by the Prisoner to a House where he was told to assemble the Company next morning at Six Oclock, that representing this was a little too early he put it till eight o'clock, that he afterwards demanded four dollars of him, by order of the Governor, and after making some Difficulty, he borrowed two French Crowns, and two Dollars, which he gave the Prisoner who returned one Shilling.

The Deponent being asked if the Prisoner appeared at all wrong in the head, answers on the Contrary appeared very Sensible.

Deposition of Corporal Angus McDonald
The Prisoner in his Defence says he was out of his Senses at that Time, that he is subject to the falling Sickness, for which he was marked down by Doctor Russel to be discharged, and that he is generally out of his Senses three Days after he comes out of a Fitt, one of which he had before he left the Island of Orleans.

Deposition of Ensign Alexander Gregarson
Ensign Gregarson of the 2d Battalion of the Royal American Regiment being sworn Deposes, that he was in the 78th Regt. and heard that the Prisoner had Fitts, but never heard that he was Mad; being asked if he ever saw him in Fitts, or Mad, says not.

Deposition of Ensign Robert McPherson
Ensign Robert McPherson of said Battalion being sworn, Deposes, that he remembers the Prisoner, in the Regiment in which he was Volunteer, and never heard of his having Fitts, till this day.

Deposition of Serjeant James Robinson
Serjeant James Robinson of the 78th Regiment being Sworn, Deposes, that he heard a Serjeant who kept the Hospital say the Prisoner had the falling Sickness. 

Verdict
The Court having heard and examined the Allegations against the Prisoner, together with what he has to offer in his Defence Is of opinion that Angus McDonald Soldier of the 78th Regiment is Guilty of the Charge brought against him, and doth adjudge him to receive two thousand Lashes, To repay the Captains of Militia the Money said McDonald extorted from them, if there is so much owing to him by his Captain, or be put under Stoppages, not exceeding one half of his Pay till the whole is repaid.

Sentencing confirmation
I do hereby confirm the foregoing Sentence, that Angus McDonald Soldier in the 78th Regiment shall receive two thousand Lashes and repay the Money extorted from the Captains of Militia.

Given under my Hand at
Quebec this 26th Sept. 1761
/Signed/
Ja: Murray

Note: Corporal Angus McDonald does not appear on any known muster rolls after this date and is assumed to have been discharged prior to the official disbandment of the regiment in December 1763.

Sources: 
General Courts Martial records, Quebec, 25 September 1761, TNA WO 71/71.

Stewart, Sketches of the Highlanders, I, 235-6.

Brumwell, Stephen, Redcoats: The British Soldier and War in the Americas, 1755-1763, pp. 280-1. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, April 15, 2018

Payroll Account of Serjeant John Watson, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758

Serjeant John Watson, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758
Much like today, accounting books were used in the eighteenth century for documenting military pay and other related expenses accrued over periods of time. The payroll account of Serjeant John Watson, 78th Regiment, covers the period of July 5, 1757, through April 24, 1758. 

Note: Category headers and bracketed script have been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document. Additionally, it would not be uncommon to discover accounting errors as these were gentlemen who created inaccuracies the same as you and I.

Income

To Pay & arrears Due you to y'e. 24th Apr. 1758
     £ 6. 11. 0

[Total]  £ 6. 11. 0

Expenses

To 1 Pair Shoes & 1 Napsack
£ 0. 6. 6
To 1 Haversack & 1 Cocade
£ 0. 1. 8
To 1 Pair Garters & 1 Sett Buckles
£ 0. 1. 4
To 1 Kilt & Small Belt
£ 0. 1. 4
To Provision at Glasgow
£ 0. 4. 8
To Spruce Beer at Halifax
£ 0. 2. 8
To 2 Cheq'd. Shirts
£ 0. 7. 0
To Y'e. Proportion of a Cooks Frock
£ 0. 0. 8
To 10 months stops for y'e. Payment Serjt. @ 1½p Month
£ 0. 0. 10
To 7 D'o. D'o. for y'e. barber @ 2p D'o.
£ 0. 1. 2
To Cash given you at Fairf'd.
£ 0. 18. 8

£ 2. 6. 11
To Cash Paid as Ball'ce. of y'e. above
£ 3. 4. ½

£ 6. 11. 0

[Total]  £ 2. 6. 4

[Income minus Expenses equals Cash Paid] 

To Cash Paid him as Bala'ce. of y'e. Above
       £ 4. 4. 8

Halifax 17th May 1758 Rec'd. y'e. above ball'ce in full of all my Pay & arrears of Pay Due from y'e. Date of my attestation to y'e. 24th Apr. Last as witneſs my hand
                                                                                             [signed]  John Watson

Source:
Major James Clephane, "Payroll account of Serjeant Alexander Rose, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758." Military Account Book at Halifax. NAS GD125-34-5, pp. 10-11.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, April 1, 2018

Payroll Account of Serjeant Alexander Rose, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758

Serjeant Alexander Rose, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758
Much like today, accounting books were used in the eighteenth century for documenting military pay and other related expenses accrued over periods of time. The payroll account of Serjeant Alexander Rose, 78th Regiment, covers the period of July 5, 1757, through April 24, 1758. 

Note: Category headers and bracketed script have been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document. Additionally, it would not be uncommon to discover accounting errors as these were gentlemen who created inaccuracies the same as you and I.

Income

To 9 Weeks Pay w. arrears and 2 weeks arrears due from y'e. 5th July to
y'e. 5th Septr.
£ 3. 3. 2
To 6 Weeks arrears at Halifax from y'e. 5th Sept'r. to y'e. 17th Oct'r 1757
£ 0. 5. 10
To 6 Weeks pay & arrears due from y'e. 17th Oct'r. to y'e. 28th Nov'r. 1757
£ 2. 1. 0
To 21 Weeks arrears due from y'e. 28th Nov'r. 1757 to y'e. 24th Apr'l. 1758
£ 1. 1. 0

[Total]  £ 6. 11. 0

Expenses

To 1 Pair Shoes & 1 Nap sack
£ 0. 6. 6
To 1 Haversack & 1 Cocade
£ 0. 1. 8
To 1 Pair Garters & 1 Sett Buckles
£ 0. 1. 4
To 1 Kilt & Small Belt
£ 0. 1. 4
To Provision at Glasgow
£ 0. 4. 8
To Spruce Beer at Halifax
£ 0. 2. 8
To 2 Cheq'd. Shirts
£ 0. 7. 0
To Y'e. Proportion of a Cooks Frock
£ 0. 0. 8
To 10 months stops for y'e. Payment Serjt. @ 1½p Month
£ 0. 0. 15
To 7 months stoppge for y'e. barber @ 2p month
£ 0. 1. 2
To mend'g. y'e. Pistle at Fairf'd.
£ 0. 1. ½
To Cash given you at Fairf'd.
£ 0. 18. 8

[Total]  £ 2. 7. 11½

[Income minus Expenses equals Cash Paid] 

To Cash Paid him as Bala'ce of y'e. Above
       £ 4. 3. ½

Halifax 17th May 1758 Recd y'e. above ball'ce in full of all my Pay &  arrears of Pay from y'e. Date of my attestation to y'e. 24th Apr. Last as witneſs of my hand
                                                                                           [signed]  Alex'r. Rose Serjt.

Source:
Major James Clephane, "Payroll account of Serjeant Alexander Rose, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758."  Military Account Book at Halifax. NAS, GD125-34-5, pp. 8-9.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Thursday, March 15, 2018

78th Regiment Grenadier Company Return of Dec. 14, 1757

The military used monthly returns which reported on the strength of each regiment, including total numbers of men present, absent, sick, or on extra daily duty, as well as giving a report of officers and some categories of enlisted men. They were a very useful and effective planning tool in eighteenth-century combat operations and are still in practical use throughout today's armed forces.

Reporting from Stratford, Connecticut in the winter month of December, Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Grenadier Company is garrisoned at the heart of regiment headquarters.

The Present Strength of the Companey
Capt'n: 1
Lieuts: 2
Sarjts: 4
Drums: 2
Rank & file: 95
Supernumeraries present: 12
Women Victualled with the Companey: 7
Lieut. Cuthbarts Servant belonging to Captn. Campbells Compy: 1
Alexr. McCerter Musishener: 1

Total: 116

Sick in Ospetelt, Not included in Rank and file
John Fraser
Doncon Camron
Allexr. Gray

[Signed] Charl: Baille Captn.

Note: Alexander McCerter is most likely McArthur, company piper.

Cover sheet:
Return of the Present Strength of 
Captn. Baillies Companey of Granaders 
Stratford December 14th 1757

Source:
Captain Charles Baillie, "Company Return of Captain Charles Baillie, Stratford, Connecticut, Dec. 14, 1757." NAS, GD125-22-17-16a.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.



Sunday, March 11, 2018

Draught Soldiers to the 15th Regiment

15th Regiment of Foot muster report, August 1763
In the summer of 1763, having received King George's Instructions regarding the reduction of the British Armies in North America, the acting generals put in motion their plan for augmenting the three regiments that would remain guarding Quebec. It was decided the 15th, 27th, and 2d Battalion, 60th Royal Americans would be assigned this task.

An analysis of the official Subsistence Rolls of the 78th Regiment reveals approximately 358 soldiers remained in North America for this duty. Some were volunteers, others were called upon because of the time remaining on their current enlistment contracts. And while the official numbers of soldiers transferring to the 15th Regiment cannot be positively identified [due to incomplete and ambiguous reporting on multiple levels], between 139 and 155 draught soldiers from Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Highlanders would join them on 25 August 1763. This fully replenished regiment would be garrisoned at Quebec; Montreal; Laprairie; St. Annes, and St. Johns over the course of the next five years, relieved by the 8th regiment and departing North America about 8 July 1768.

The following veterans of the 78th are confirmed as having been draughted to the 15th Regiment in the summer of 1763, listed with their new company commanders. Also, this is the first indication of any documented father/son family members to have served together in Fraser's Highlanders.

General Amherst's Company
1. Private William Bruce
2. Private Andrew McLoud
3. Private Alexander McLoud
4. Private John McIver
5. Private John McDonald

Lt.-Col. James Robertson's Company
6. Private John Beaton
7. Private Donald Cameron
8. Private Alexander Fraser
9. Private Donald McIntire
10. Private Donald McGilvery
11. Private John McDonald, Sr.
12. Private John McDonald, Jr.
13. Private Rory McLeland
14. Private John McLean
15. Private Dougal McLachlin
16. Private John McDonald
17. Private Archibald McDougall
18. Private John McTavish
19. Private Angus McDonald, Sr.
20. Private Angus McDonald, Jr.
21. Private Donald Smith
22. Private James Taylor

Major Irving's Company
23. Private Coll Grant
24. Private William Grant
25. Private Angus McDonell, Sr.
26. Private Angus McDonell, Jr.
27. Private Alexander McDonell
28. Private Chs. McDonell
29. Private John McDonell
30. Private Donald McDonell
31. Private Colling McDonell
32. Private John McGillevray
33. Private James McIntosh, Sr.
34. Private James McIntosh, Jr.
35. Private Donald McKay
36. Private Robert McKay
37. Private Donald McKinven
38. Private Alexander McNabb
39. Private Alexander McLoud
40. Private James McKinsey
41. Private John Monroe

Captain Francis Mukins' Company
42. Private William Gowe
43. Private John Fisher
44. Private James Lawson
45. Private John McIntire
46. Private Alexander McCawley
47. Private Donald McDonald
48. Private Duncan Smyth

Captain William Prescott's Company
49. Private George Davidson
50. Private Donald Frazer
51. Private David Jackson
52. Private Donald Levoche
53. Private Donald Mcmasters
54. Private Allen McEacheron
55. Private John McDonald, Sr.
56. Private John McKey
57. Private Robert McDonald
58. Private Farquhar McIntosh
59. Private Alexander McDonald
60. Private William McGillivie
61. Private John McDonald, Jr.
62. Private Hector McNell
63. Private Murdoch Morrison
64. Private Dunkan McKinnon
65. Private Donald McDonald
66. Private Angus McIntyre
67. Private Ewen McKay
68. Private Donald McMillen
69. Private Alexander Patterson
70. Private William Ritchey
71. Private Alexander Sutherland

Captain John Maxwell's Company
72. Private Gregor McGregor
73. Private Hugh Fraser
74. Private Angus Kennedy
75. Private Alexander McKinsey
76. Private Donald McKinvan
77. Private John McNear
78. Private James Ross
79. Private Alexander Sutherland
80. Private Donald Sutherland

Captain James Cuthbert's Company
81. Private William Campbell
82. Private John Chisham
83. Private John Fraser
84. Private Angus Gillas
85. Private John Innes
86. Private John McLean
87. Private Roderick McKenzie, Sr.
88. Private Donald McMillan
89. Private Roderick McKinzie, Jr.
90. Private Alexander McKay
91. Private William Ross

Captain Henry Hamilton's Company
92. Private William Brown
93. Private Alexander Cameron
94. Private Hugh Fraser
95. Private William Fraser
96. Private Martin Ferguson
97. Private James Glass
98. Private John Kennedy
99. Private Donald Kennedy
100. Private Roderick McLeod
101. Private John McLarren
102. Private David Mitchell
103. Private Alexander Martin
104. Private Alexander McDonald
105. Private Malcolm McPhie
106. Private Dugall McPherson
107. Private John McSwain
108. Private Alexander McLeod, Sr.
109. Private Alexander McLeod, Jr.
110. Private Angus Morrison
111. Private Hugh McCraw
112. Private Donald Ross
113. Private John Ross
114. Private John Ross
115. Private Andrew Rose
116. Private David Saunders
117. Private William Williamson

Captain Robert Strobo's Company
118. Private John Beaton
119. Private John Cameron
120. Private Alexander Frasier
121. Private David Gun
122. Private Archibald Henderson
123. Private Donald McLeod
124. Private Malcolm McLeod
125. Private Angus McDonald, Sr.
126. Private Angus McDonald, Jr.
127. Private Donald McDonald, Sr.
128. Private Donald McDonald, Jr.
129. Private Archibald McDonald
130. Private John McIntosh
131. Private Donald McIntire
132. Private Peter McNorton
133. Private Duncan Mckenzie
134. Private Donald McBean
135. Private James McPherson
136. Private Alexander Martin
137. Private Alexander Robertson
138. Private Robert Shaw
139. Private John Shaw

The following draughts are thought to have previously served with the 78th, but cannot be positively identified as such:

140. Corporal Lachlin Irwin
141. Private John Gillas
142. Private Angus McDonald
143. Private John Robertson
144. Private John Grant
145. Private Duncan McGregor
146. Private John McDonald
147. Private Alexander Kennedy
148. Private Roderick McDonald
149. Private Angus McDonald, Sr.
150. Private Angus McDonald, Jr.
151. Private John McDonald
152. Private John Stewart
153. Private Angus McDonald
154. Private John Smyth
155. Private John McDonald

Notes:
1. Private Bruce deserted the 15th Regiment in May 1764. Appears on the 78th's muster of 170 soldiers discharged in America.
63. Private Morrison appears on the 78th's muster dated 19 July 1763 but is absent from their Subsistence Rolls of September 1763, two months later.
70. Private Ritchey is listed as Nitchey on the 78th's Subsistence Rolls of September 1763.

Sources:
War Office Records. Muster Books and Paylists: General, 15th Regiment, 1760-1767. LAC, W.O. 12, vol. 3228, Microfilm C-9202.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.].

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Thursday, March 1, 2018

Generosity

Generosity increasingly came in the 17th century to signify a variety of traits of character and action historically associated [whether accurately or not] with the ideals of actual nobility: gallantry, courage, strength, richness, gentleness, and fairness.

Writing in his journal late in the month of November 1759, General Townshend unknowingly documented the empathy and personal character of each and every man of Fraser's Highlanders, regarding their collective generosity and monetary contributions to the British government.

JOURNAL ENTRY
GENERAL JAMES TOWNSHEND

Novr. 25, 1759

"Having Intelligence that the Merchants every greedy of gain to purchase Furs, had Transmitted a good deal of Cash to Montreal, where they were much in want of the Commodity, the Paper Money by Reason of the Ficklish Situation of the Colony being in utter disrepute, and their being by no means in the military Chest a Sufficency to Defray the Contingent expenses of the garrison, to procure what was wanted and Effectually to prevent a Commerce so destructive to us, I this day Published a kind of Proclamation, to encourage the Friends and well wishers of His Majesty to lend what they could afford, for which Col. Burton, the next officer in Command to me and I gave our Bills to be Repaid in Six Months with Intrest at 5 Per Cent. This in a short time procured us so considerable a sum at £8000 which without having recount to further Expedient, will enable us to await the Arrival of the ships and be it Remembered to the Honour of the Highland or 78th Regiment Commanded by Colonel Fraser, that the Non Commission Officers and Private Men of that Single Regiment contributed of that sum £2000."

                                                                                                         [Gen. James Townshend]


Serjeant James Thompson of 78th Regiment further described the event of that cold winter day as follows:

"General Murray, being in want of funds to carry on his government during the winter, summoned all the officers and enquired if they had any money, and if their soldiers had any money that they could lend to the Governor until the supplies arrived from England in the spring. We were told of the wants of the Governor, and the next day we were paraded every man and told that we should receive our money back with interest, as soon as possible; and in order to prevent any mistake, every man received his receipt for his amount, and for fear he should lose it, the Adjutant went along the ranks, and entered in a book the name and sum opposite to every man; and, by the Lord Harry! When they came to count it up, they found that our regiment alone, Fraser’s Highlanders, had mustered six thousand guineas! It was not long after we had lent our money, that one morning a frigate was seen coming round Point Levi with supplies. We were soon afterwards mustered, and every man received back his money with twelve months interest, besides the thanks of the General.”

Source:
General James Townshend, "Journal Commencing From The Surrender Of Quebec, November 25, 1759." LAC, Northcliffe Collection: General Townshend Papers, vol. 15, Microfilm C-369.

Campbell, Jeffrey A. His Majesty's Courageous Highlanders [Createspace Publishing, 2014].

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, February 15, 2018

Letter from Colonel Simon Fraser to General Forbes, Feb. 1758

The following letter, dated 10 February 1758, is from Lt.-Col. Simon Fraser, Second Highland Battalion [78th Regiment], to Colonel John Forbes, Adjutant General. The main body of the letter focuses on the pending litigation against Serjeant Fraser for his involvement in the death of Corporal Mackay [an indictment laid for murder] in Connecticut, both men of the regiment. The colonel appears to be wrestling with the idea of having to turn the serjeant over for civil trial.

Dear Sir

Capt. Crauford Surprized me greatly yesterday by saying you wanted the Monthly Return of our Regiment for the 24th January, that Return I sent as I did the one for the former Month in a sealed Cover to General Webb, & my Servant deliver'd it Sunday was tonight the 29th at the Genl's house to an Elderly Man who seem'd to be a Servant out of livery.

From what you wrote me some weeks ago I was in hopes to have had Orders for Serjeant Fraser's tryal here by a Court Martial or for sending him to New York for that purpose. I have had great difficulty to prevent him being claim'd hitherto, not that they are desirous of trying him, on the contrary they had rather avoid it but they are afraid if they don't claim him he will not be tryed at all & that his guilt will fall upon the land; they declare all they desire is that he shou'd have a fair tryal, & that they woud chuse it shoud be a Military rather than a Civil one, but unleſs some directions are given imediatly about his tryal by a Court Martial, it will be impossible for me to persuade them that it is intended to be done at all; they consider it as a great compliment taking my word for it for some weeks past, during which time they say they have avoided interfering in order to see if My Lord intended a Military trial, for God's sake My Dear Sir, put My Lord in mind to do something about this poor unhappy Man, whose 'twere pity shoud be in the hand of uncultivated creatures, for the King has not a better Soldier.

I find you heard of a Soldiers being given up for a peccadillo at Stanford, it was done without my knowledge & I have since got him released, I don't know how far My Lord will chuse to have Men given up for triffling Offences when the people are capricious enough to desire it, especialy as our united experience thro all the Cantonments proves, that the people of the Country are apt to grow rather insolent upon great indulgence, & that a mixture of the Soure with the Sweet if necessary to keep upon good terms with them.

                                I am with great regard
                                 
                                                               Dear Sir

                                                                        Your most Obedient & most humble
                                                                            Servant S. Fraser

Stratford Febry 10th 1758

Source:
Colonel Simon Fraser, "Letter of Col. Simon Fraser to Colonel Forbes, Adjutant General, at His House in the Broadway or at the Fort, New York." NAS, GD45-2-29, pp. 15-16. 

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Saturday, February 3, 2018

Colonel Simon Fraser's Recruits

Alexander Fraser [1860-1936], a native of Inverness-shire, who was the first Archivist of Ontario [1903-35], was an acknowledged authority on Scottish history in general and Fraser history in particular. In 1934 he advised a descendant of Malcolm Fraser of Mount Murray that the Rev. Dr. Archibald MacDonald - then quite an old man - had written a short history of the Lords of Lovat. In The Old Lords of Lovat and Beaufort [1934], Dr. MacDonald included the muster roll of 71 recruits raised in 1757 for Colonel Simon Fraser, by James Fraser of Belladrum, as well as extracts of correspondence between Belladrum and Bailie James Fraser, merchant, Inverness, which shed some light on Belladrum's involvement with the Fraser Highlanders. The following except and subsequent soldiers' muster roll originally appeared as part of that publication.

“...In connection with the enlistment of men for the Fraser Highlanders, the following roll of 71 recruits was raised in 1757 by James Fraser of Belladrum, and preserved among the Belladrum papers. The men were drawn chiefly from the district of Inverness, and their interest lies to some extent in the fact that none of them seem to measure more than 5 feet 9-1/2 inches in height.” 

Roll of Men Enlisted for the Honble Coll Fraser's Regimt by Jas. Fraser, 1757

Jan 15:
Name: Alex Cameron, Butcher, Invs
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 21
Dn: 1st

Jan 17:
Jno MacKenzie, Do
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 21
Dn: 3d

Jas MacKenzie, Do
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 32
Dn: 3d

Hugh Fraser, Do
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 27
Dn: 3d

Jan 18:
Jno Fraser, Weaver, Do
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 21
Dn: 3d

Jno Grant, Duthel
Size: 5: 9
Age: 31
Dn: 1st

Jan 19:
Willm Fraser, Hyrer, Invs
Size: 5: 5-1/2
Age: 33
Dn: 1st

Jan 20
Thos Campbell, Breakachie
Size: 5: 5-1/2
Age: 28
Dn: 3d

Jan 21
Jno McDonald, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 19
Dn: 3d

Jno McDonald, Pyper, Kinchyle
Size: 5: 3
Age: 21
Dn: 2d

Walter Simson, Kings, Milns
Size: 5: 5-1/4
Age: 19

Jan 24
Wm Mack Queen, Daviot
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 18
Dn: 3d

Jno MacKenzie, from Urray
Size: 5: 3
Age 18
Dn: 3d

Jan 25
Wm Williamson, Castlehill
Size: 5: 5-1/2
Age: 18

Collin McDonald, Invs
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 30
Dn: 3d

Jno Shaw, Weaver, Kings, Milns
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 19

Jan 26:
Alexr Vauss, Kings, Milns
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 27
Dn: 2d

John Fraser, Robbie, Invs
Size: 5: 2-1/2
Age, 18

Jan 27
Thomas Fraser, Baker, Do
Size: 5: 2-1/2
Age: 15

Alexr Fraser, Do, Do
Size: 5: 1
Age: 16

Dun McTavish, Aberaider
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 23
Dn: 3d

Rod McKenzie, Aberaider
Size: 5: 3-3/4
Age: 18

Angus McArthur, Troternish
Size: 5: 6-1/4
Age: 36
Dn: 3d

Jno Robertson, Bewlie
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 20
Dn: 3d

Jan 28:
Don Fraser, McWilliam, Moniack
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 20
Dn: 3d

Alexr Cameron, Culchuniack
Size: 5: 3-3/4
Age: 19
Dn: 1st

Alexr Vauss, Invs
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 29
Dn: 2d

Geo McKenzie, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 9
Age: 20
Dn: 1st

Jan 29:
Jno McLeod, Invs
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 18
Dn: 3d

Jan 31:
Alexr Baillie, Invs
Size: 5: 4-1/4
Age: 26
Dn: 3d

Simon Fraser, Culduthell
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 30
Dn: 3d

Jno Fraser, Muirtown
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 18
Dn: 1st

Alexr MackLeod, Joyner
Size: 5: 8
Age: 28
Dn: 1st

Feb 1
Don Cameron. Glenstrafarer
Size: 5: 7
Age: 25
Dn: 1st

Feb 2:
Don Fraser, Croy
Size: 5: 7-1/2
Age: 21
Dn: 1st

Doug McDonald, Invs
Size: 5: 3
Age: 19
Dn: 3d

No. 37

Feb 2:
Archibald Mack Queen, Moy
Size: 5: 7
Age: 38
Dn: 3d

Jany 28:
John Gordon, Duthel
Size: 5: 3
Age: 21

Feb 5:
Alex Munro, Duthel
Size: 5: 3-3/4
Age: 17
Dn: 3d

Feb 7:
Alexr Mackay, Kingussie
Size: 5: 5-1/4
Age: 31
Dn: 4d

Dun McKenzie, Petty
Size: 5: 3-1/4
Age: 18

Jno Fraser, Dunain
Size: 5: 3
Age: 18

Dun Munro, Culkaiback
Size: 5: 5
Age: 18

Feb 9:
Willm Fraser, Cantra
Size: 5: 5-3/4
Age: 20
Dn: 1st

Feb 10:
Andw Mack Lean, Davochgarnoch
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 19

Feb 11:
Alexr Grigor, Croy
Size: 5: 3
Age: 17

Neil Mackleod, Invs
Size: 5: 4
Age: 34

Feb 12:
Jno McDonald senr, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 29
Dn: 3d

Feb 14:
Alex Mackenzie, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 3
Age: 34

Feb 15:
Alex Munro, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 9
Age: 22
Dn: 2d

Feb 18:
Murdoch Mackenzie, Do
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 39
Dn: 4d

Feb 3:
James Mackdonald, Do
Size: 5: 1-1/2
Age:

Alex Fraser, Joyner
Size: 5: 1-1/2
Age:
Dn: 2d

Feb 15:
Jno Mack, Crae
Size: 5: 2
Age: 18

Feb 16:
Donald Munro
Size: 5: 2-1/2
Age: 20

Mar 1:
Alexr Fraser, serjeant
Size: 5: 6
Age: 23

Mar 3:
Donald McPherson,
Size: 5: 5
Age: 38

James Glass
Size: 5: 2
Age: 18

Donald McIntosh
Size: 5: 2
Age 17

Mar 9:
Donald Cameron, K's, Milne
Size: 5: 3
Age: 19
Dn: 4th

Feb 24:
Farquhar McGilvray, Moy
Size: 5: 4
Age: 28

Mar 2:
James Gregory
Size: 5: 9
Age: 40
Dn: 3d

Mar 11:
John Fraser, Wright, Culloden
Size: 5: 7-1/2
Age: 40
Dn: 2d

James Forsyth, Croy
Size: 5: 4
Age: 29

Mar 14:
John McDonald, Tobacconist
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 19
Dn: 2d

Kenneth Mackenzie, Petty
Size: 5: 5
Age: 19
Dn: 2d

John Fraser, Culloden, 17 years old
Size: 5: 4-3/4
Age: 37

Mar 19:
Jno Shaw, Edenkilie
Size: 5: 8-3/4
Age: 25
Dn: 3d

Angus McDonell, serj, 26 Janry
Size: 5: 9-1/2
Age: 24
Dn: 4th

No. 70

Mar 29:
Neil Mack Lean, Troternish, Culloden
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 19

Ap 2:
Thomas Fraser, Kinmylies
Size: 5: 6-1/4
Age: 27

Abbreviations:
Dn: Division
Do: Ditto

James Fraser of Belladrum was appointed lieutenant in Col. Fraser's regiment on 4 January 1757 and carried with the colonel on the official Army Lists through 1760, where he is listed as "resigns" from the regiment. He reappears as captain in the 87th Regiment of Foot [or Highland Volunteers, Germany] in 1761, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Murray Keith.

In 2001, it was asserted these 71 recruits never made it to North America with the main body of Fraser's men and were sent to fight with Belladrum in Germany in 1759. That claim, however, has not yet been substantiated. Serjeants Alexander Fraser [March 1] and Angus McDonell [March 19] both appear on the list of 170 Soldiers Discharged in North America; the former in Colonel Fraser's Company, the latter in Captain Alexander McLeod's Company. Additional sources also describe the original recruits of the 87th Foot as a nucleus of drafts from Lord Murray's supernumeraries of the 42nd Regiment, or Black Watch. 

Because such a limited amount of paperwork relating to the original recruitment of soldiers for Fraser's 78th Highlanders has survived, this document could prove quite valuable in identifying men from the regiment thought to have ancestral roots in northern Scotland.

A check of the records of the Fraser of Belladrum papers at the National Library of Scotland indicates the absence of this original muster roll from the collection.

Sources:
Bulloch, John Malcolm. Territorial Soldiering in the North-East of Scotland during 1759-1814 [Aberdeen, 1914].

Marie Fraser, "The Old 78th Regiment of Foot." Clan Fraser Society of Canada, 2001.

Kronoskaf. Origin and History of the 87th Foot. http://www.kronoskaf.com/syw/index.php?title=87th_Foot.

MacDonald, Archibald, Reverend. The Old Lords of Lovat and Beaufort [Northern Counties Newspaper and Publishing, 1934].

War Office Records. List of General and Field Officers as they Rank in the Army, 1757-1761 [National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, U.K.]

"Inventory of Family papers of Fraser of Belladrum." NAS, GB233/Acc.11244.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Thursday, February 1, 2018

Payroll Account of Corporal Hugh Tulloch, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758

Much like today, accounting books were used in the eighteenth century for documenting military pay and other related expenses accrued over periods of time. The payroll account of Corporal Hugh Tulloch, 78th Regiment, covers the period of July 5, 1757, through April 24, 1758.

Note: Category headers and bracketed script have been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document. Additionally, it would not be uncommon to discover accounting errors as these were gentlemen who created inaccuracies the same as you and I.

Income

To 9 Weeks arrears & Pay Due from y'e. 5th July to y'e. 5th Septr
  £2. 0. 10½
To 5 Weeks arrears of Pay Due from y'e. 5th Septr to y'e. 10th Octr
£0. 8. 1½
To 3 Weeks arrears @ 

To 6 Weeks Pay & arrears Due from y'e. 17th Octr to y'e. 28th Novr
£1. 7. 3
To 21 Weeks arrears of Pay Due from y'e. 28th Novr 1757 to y'e. 24th
Aprl 1758
£1. 14. 1½

[Total]  £5. 10. 4½
To 4 Weeks Pay Due on y'e. march in Ireland from Drummore 
to Cork
£0. 18. 2

[Total]  £6. 8. 6½

Expenses

To 1 Pair Shoes & 1 Napsack
£0. 6. 6
To 2 Haversack & 1 Cocade
£0. 2. 8
To 1 Pair Garters & 1 Sett Buckles
£0. 1. 4
To 1 Kilt & Small Belt
£0. 1. 4
To 1 Turn Key Screw brush & wire
£0. 0. 9
To Provision at Glasgow
£0. 4. 8
To Spruce Beer at Halifax
£0. 2. 8
To 2 Cheq'd. Shirts
£0. 7. 0
To Y'e. Proportion of a Cooks Frock
£0. 0. 8
To 10 months stops for y'e. Payment Serjt. @ 1 1/2p Month
£0. 0. 10
To 7 D'o. D'o. for y'e. barber @ 2p D'o.
£0. 1. 2
To 4 Weeks Pay given into y'e. Hospt. at Halifax
£0. 15. 0
To cash given you at Fairfield
£0. 18. 8
To cash advance by Y'e. Colonel in Ireland
£0. 15. 0

[Total]  £3. 18. 3

[Income minus Expenses equals Cash Paid] 

To Cash Paid him as Ball'ce. of y'e. Above
       £1. 12. 1

[Total]  £5. 10. 4½
To more Cash Paid him as ball'ce for 4 weeks Pay & arrears
in Ireland
£6. 8. 6½

To Cash Paid him as Ball'ce. of y'e. Above
£2. 10. 3½


Halifax 17th May 1758 Rec'd. y'e. above ball'ce. in full of my Pay & arrears of Pay Due from y'e. Date of my attestation to y'e. 24th Apr. Last as witneſs my hand
                                                                                             [signed]  Hugh Tulloch

Source:
Major James Clephane, "Payroll Account of Corporal Hugh Tulloch, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758." Military Account Book at Halifax. NAS, GD125-34-5, pp. 14-15.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Monday, January 22, 2018

The Colonel's Company

The following is a list of the officers and men of the 78th Regiment [Fraser's Highlanders] attached to The Colonel's Company when the regiment was discharged in 1763. Of the approximately 865 enlisted men and NCOs of the regiment, only 170 men are documented as discharged in America. The other soldiers that stayed were transferred to different regiments in the area.

It should be noted that in these subsistence rolls there are female names appearing in italicised script type. And the more interesting question of what part they played in the regiment can be found in the following notes:

1. In "Louisbourg, Key to a Continent" by Fairfax Downey, p. 160: "--- yet more draft had to be manpower, no animals being available, and it proved to be womanpower as well. Among the parties who tugged on the drag ropes, one thousand strong with frequent shift changes, were several hundred laundresses, a number being allowed to each British regiment by regulation, and carried as 'married and on the strength'. Heavy fire from [the guns of] Louisbourg disconcerted them no more than it did the men."

2. In "The Great Fortress" by William Wood, p. 112: "The practice of assigning laundresses, usually the wives of NCOs to military units was frequently followed. In the U.S. Army, where four were allowed each company, it persisted through the Indian Wars."

3. In "The Fraser Highlanders" by J.R. Harper, p. 73, appears: Included in Wolfe's final orders for embarkation to Quebec from Louisbourg, May 17, 1759: "The regiments are to receive provisions for no more than three women per company of 70, and four per company of 100 men."

These rolls should prove to be of great historic value to those who claim ancestry to soldiers who fought at Louisbourg and Quebec with the 78th Regiment. Many of the soldiers who chose to enlist in Fraser’s Highlanders, did so for the money, and those who stayed when the regiment was discharged in 1763, likely felt that their chances of land ownership were better in the New World than they would have been had they returned to Scotland.

The Colonel's Company
Time of Entry: Aug. 23, 1763
Number of Days Victualled: 21

1. Sergeant Donald Grey
2. Sergeant Donald Fraser
3. Sergeant Alexander Fraser
4. Corporal John Grant
5. Corporal Thomas Ried
6. Corporal Thomas Fraser
7. Drummer Thomas Gunn
8. Private William Anderson
9. Private Alexander Cameron
10. Private Alexander Cameron
11. Private Thomas Cameron
12. Private William Cameron
13. Private John Cameron
14. Private Donald Cameron
15. Private William Cameron
16. Private William Cameron
17. Private Donald Cameron
18. Private Donald Cameron
19. Private Donald Cameron
20. Private Donald Cameron
21. Private Donald Cameron
22. Private Donald Cameron
23. Private Alexander Cameron
24. Private John Fraser
25. Private John Fraser
26. Private John Fraser
27. Private John Fraser
28. Private John Fraser
29. Private Alexander Fraser
30. Private Thomas Fraser
31. Private Thomas Fraser
32. Private Thomas Fraser
33. Private Hugh Fraser
34. Private William Forbes
35. Private John Gunn
36. Private Thomas Maitland
37. Private Donald McBain
38. Private John McBain
39. Private William McDonald
40. Private Alexander McDonald
41. Private Alexander McDonell
42. Private Peter McDonell
43. Private Donald McDonell
44. Private Peter McGregor
45. Private Murdoch McKenzie
46. Private Donald McKenzie
47. Private Donald McKenzie
48. Private Colin McKay
49. Private Alexander McKay
50. Private Alexander McKay
51. Private Evan McPhie
52. Private Hugh Ross
53. Private Alexander Ross
54. Private John Ried
55. Private Robert Robinson
56. Private Walter Simpson
57. Private William Stewart
58. Private Donald Thompson
59. Mary Kennedy
60. Ann Simpson

Time of Entry: Aug. 29, 1763
Number of Days Victualled: 7

61. Private D. Cummins

Time of Entry: Aug. 30, 1763
Number of Days Victualled: 14

62. Captain-Lieutenant Donald McBain
63. Lieutenant Simon Fraser
64. Ensign Malcolm Fraser

Time of Entry: Sep. 6, 1763
Number of Days Victualled: 7

65. Surgeon Mate Donald Morrison

Sources:
Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.].

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.