Saturday, December 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Twelve

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
12th. By this day's orders it appears the General intends a most vigorous attack, supposed behind the town, where to appearance a landing is impracticable.

Our disposition terminates thus ; that the Light Infantry are to lead and land first, in order to maintain a picquering with the enemy (as also cover the troops' debarkation) till the army take a footing on the heights.

We are to embark on board our flatt-bottomed boats by 12 o'clock and upon the Sunderland man-of-war showing a light, we are to repair to that rendevouze, where the boats will range in a line and proceed when ordered in the manner directed ; viz. the Light Infantry the van, and the troops to follow by seniority. The army compleated to 70 rounds ammunition each man ; and the flatt-bottomed boats to repair to the different vessells, and proportionably divide according to the number on board the ship.

By 10 o'clock Colonel How called for the volunteers in the Light Infantry, signifying to them, that the General intends that a few men may land before the Light Infantry and army, and scramble up the rock, when ordered by Capt. Delaune, who is to be first in the boat along with us ; saying that he thought proper to propose it to us, as he judged it owuld be a choice, and that is any of us survived, might depend on our being recommended to the General. made answer : We were sensible of the honour he did, in making us the first offer of an affair of such importance as our landing first, where an opportunity occured of distinguishing ourselves, assuring him his agreeable order would be put in execution with the greatest activity, care, and vigour in our power.

he observing our number consisted only of eight men, viz. :

1st. Fitz-gerald
2nd. Robertson
3rd. Stewart
4th. Mc Allester
5th. Mackenzie
6th Mc Pherson
7th. Cameron
8th. Bell

Ordered we should take 2 men of our own choice from three companys of Lt. Infantry, which in all made 24 men. Which order being put in execution we embarked in our boat. Fine weather, the night calm, and silence all over.

Waiting impatiently for the signal of proceeding.

September 12th and 13th. Morning, 2 o'clock, the signal was made for our proceeding, which was done in pretty good order, the same disposition formerly mentioned. When we came pretty close to the heights we rowed close in with the north shore, which made the Hunter sloop-of-war, who lay of, suspect us to be enemy, not being apprised of our coming down. However, we passed two sentries on the beach without being asked any questions. The third sentry challenged, who is there? Was answered by Capt. Fraser in the French tongue, saying we are the provision boats from Montreal, cautioning the sentry to be silent, otherwise he would expose us to the fire of the English man-of-war. This took place till such time as their officer was acquainted, who had reason to suspect us, ordering all his sentrys to fire upon us ; but by this time the aforesaid volunteer was up in eminence, and a part of the Light Infantry following. After we got up we only received on fire, which we returned briskly, and took a prisoner, the remaining part of the enemy flying into a field of corn. At same time we discovered a body of men making towards us, who we did not know (it being only daybreak), but were the enemy ; we put ourselves in the best posture of making a defence ; two of us advanced, when they came close, and challenged them, when we found it was Capt. Fraser with his co., who we join'd, and advanced to attack this party of the enemy lodged in the field, who directly fled, before us ; by pursuing close the Lieut. and his drummer came in to us. In this interval the whole of the Light Infantry were on the heights, and a part of the regts. We remained till the whole army took post, when we were detached to silence a battery who kept firing on our shipping who were coming down the river. This was effected without the loss of a man ; the enemy placed one of the cannon to flank, drew off, and got into the woods which was within forty yards of the battery. We demolished the powder, and came away.

On our return we saw our army forming the line of battle ; we (Light Infantry), who stood about 800 paces from the line, were ordered to face outwards, and cover the rear of our line, as there was a body of the enemy in their rear and front of the Light Infantry. About 6 o'clock observed the enemy coming from town, and forming under cover of their cannon ; we saw they were numerous, therefore the General made the proper disposition for battle ; they marched up in one extensive line. When they came within a reconoitring view they halted, advancing a few of their Irregulars, who kept picquering with one or two platoons, who were advanced for that purpose, at the same itm playing with three field pieces of our line. On which the General ordered the line to lay down till the enemy came close, when they were to rise up and give their fire. The enemy, thinking by our disappearing, that their cannon disconcerted us, they thought proper to embrace the opportunity ; wheeling back from the centre, and formed three powerful columns, advanced very regular with their cannon playing on us. By this time we had one field piece on the right, and two howats on the left who began to give fire ; the enemy huzza'd, advancing with a short trott (which was effectually shortened to a number of them) they began their fire on the left, the whole of them reclining that way, but received and sustained such a check that the smell of gunpowder became nautious ; they broke their line, running to all parts of the compass.

To our great concern and loss General Wolfe was mortally wounded ; but the Brigadiers, who were also wounded, excepting Murray, seeing the enemy break, ordered the Granadiers to charge in among them with their bayonets, as also the Highlanders with their swords, which did some execution, particularyy in the pursuit.

During the lined being engaged, a body of the enemy attacked a part of the Light Infantry on the right, were repulsed, and thought proper to follow the fait of traverse sailing. As I was not in the line of battle I can't say what the latest disposition of the enemy way before engaging.

How soon this action was over we received a part of our intrenching tools and began to make redoubts, not knowing but next morning we would have another to cut, as the enemy expected 13 companies of Granadiers to join, and about 2000 men who occupy'd a post mean Point au Treamp, but it seemed they were not recovered of the former morning's portion ; not liking English medicines.

This affair gave great spirit to the whole army, notwithstanding the loss of much regretted Life of the Army, General Wolfe. The men kept-sober, which was a great maxim of their bravery.

Towards the evening a part of the enemy, who were the Regulars, formed, who seemed to make a shew of standing ; Colonel Burton, 48th regt. was drawn opposite with a field piece in their front, which disputed them. We took post in our redoubts ; not having the camp equipage on shore, part of the army lay on their arms in the field till next morning. All quiet during the night of the 13th.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, December 1, 2018

Army Return of the Battle of Sainte-Foy, 28 Apr. 1760

Army Return of The Battle of Sainte-Foy, 28 Apr. 1760
The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in the United States). It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de LĂ©vis over the British army under General Murray. The battle was notably bloodier than the Battle of the Plains of Abraham of the previous September, and it was considered the last French victory in North America.

Return of the Officers, that were Killed, Wounded, Taken Prisoners, Missing, on the 28th of April 1760
Amherst's 15th Regiment
1. Lieut. Maxwell, Senr.
2. Capt. Lieut. Cockburn
3. Lieut. Mukins
4. Lieut. Maxwell, Junr.
5. Lieut. Cathcart
6. Lieut. Winter
7. Lieut. Irwin
8. Lieut. Lockhart
9. Ens. Moneypenny
10. Ens. Bartlett
11. Ens. Mills
12. Ens. Barker
Wounded Prisoner:
13. Lt. Hamilton
14. Ens. Montgomery

Non-commissioned officers
- Serjeants: 4
- Rank & File: 21
- Serjeants: 9
- Rank & File: 82

1 & 4: Lts. Maxwell: father/son
14. Ens. Montgomery would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Bragg's 28th Regiment
1. Colonel Walsh
2. Major Dalling
3. Capt. Spann
4. Capt. Mitchelson
5. Lt. & Adj. Tassell
6. Lieut. Brown
7. Lieut. Phibbs
8. Ens. Gilmer
9. Ens. Sheppard
10. Ens. Beal

Non-commissioned officers
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 14
- Serjeants: 4
- Drummers: 4
- Rank & File: 100

Otway's 35th Regiment
Wounded Prisoner:
1. Captain Ince
2. Lieut. Brown
3. Ens. Lysaght

Non-commissioned officers
- Rank & File: 12
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 43

1. Captain Ince would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Kennedy's 43rd Regiment
1. Captain Skey
2. Lieut. Clements
3. Captain Maitland
Wounded Prisoner:
4. Ens. Maw

Non-commissioned officers
- Rank & File: 5
- Rank & File: 16

Lascelle's 47th Regiment
1. Major Hussey
2. Lieut. Sheriff
3. Lieut. Forster
4. Lieut. Bassett
5. Lieut. Ewer
6. Lieut. Stratford
7. Ens. Ulstik
8. Ens. Handfield
Wounded Prisoner:
9. Captain Archbold

Non-commissioned officers
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 10
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 43

9. Captain Archbold would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Webb's 48th Regiment
1. Ens. Nicholson
2. Capt. Sir James Cockburn
3. Capt. Lieut. Barbutt
4. Lieut. Waterhouse
5. Lieut. Royce
6. Lieut. Crowe
7. Lieut. Moore
8. Ens. Campbell
9. Ens. Johnson
10. Lieut. Davers

Non-commissioned officers
- Rank & File: 22
- Rank & File: 63

Anstruther's 58th Regiment
1. Ens. Conway

Non-commissioned officers
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 7
- Serjeants: 3
- Rank & File: 45

Monckton's 2d Bn. 60th Regiment
1. Ens. Snow Steel
2. Ens. Donald McDonald

Non-commissioned officers
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 1
- Rank & File: 9

Lawrence's 3d Bn. 60th Regiment
1. Capt. Faesch
2. Lieut. Faesch
3. Lieut. Campbell
4. Lieut. Grant
5. Lieut. Stephens
6. Lieut. Lewis Forbes
7. Ens. Pinckney
8. Ens. McGee
9. Ens. Hill
10. Ens. Stewart
11. Colonel Young
12. Capt. Charteris

Non-commissioned officers
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 9
- Rank & File: 32

6. Lieut. Lewis Forbes would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Fraser's 78th Regiment
1. Capt. Donald McDonnell
2. Lieut. Cosmo Gordon
3. Colonel Fraser
4. Capt. John Campbell
5. Capt. Alexr. Fraser
6. Capt. McLeod
7. Lieut. Archd. Campbell
8. Lt. Hector McDonnell
9. Lt. Donald McBean
10. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Senr.
11. Lt. John Nairn
12. Lt. Arthur Rose
13. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Junr.
14. Lt. Simon Fraser, Senr.
15. Lt. Archd. McAllister
16. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Grenadiers
17. Lt. John Chissolm
18. Lt. Simon Fraser, Junr.
19. Lt. Malcolm Fraser
20. Lt. Donald McNeil
21. Ens. Henry Munroe
22. Ens. Robert Menzies
23. Ens. Charles Stewart
24. Ens. Duncan Cameron
25. Ens. William Robertson
26. Capt. Lt. Chas. McDonnell
Wounded Prisoner:
27. Ens. Alexr. Gregorson
28. Ens. Malcolm Fraser
29. Lt. Alexr. Campbell

Non-commissioned officers
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 51
- Serjeants: 10
- Rank & File: 119

8. Lt. Hector McDonnell expired 8 May 1760 from his wounds.
10 & 13: Lts. Fraser: father/son
14 & 18: Lts. Fraser: father/son
28. Ens. Malcom Fraser would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

1. Major Goodwin
2. 2d Lieut. Heathcoat
3. 2d Lieut. Scott
4. Lt. Fireworker Davidson
Wounded Prisoner:
5. Lt. Fireworker Cooke

- Bombardiers: 3
- Gunners: 1
- Matrosses: 6
- Matrosses: 1

Chief Engineer
1. Major McKellar

1. Capt. Hazzen

James Wolfe, "Return of the officers, that were killed, wounded, taken prisoners, missing, on the 28th of April 1760." Northcliff Collection: Series 1: Robert Monckton Papers. LAC, Microfilm: C-366.

James Murray, "List of officers sent in Governor Murray’s return not included in the list of English prisoners returned from Canada, June 14, 1760." War Officer Records: Amherst Papers. Correspondence between French Officers in North America and the Commander-in-Chief, 1757-1761. LAC, W.O. 34, vol. 10.

Marie Fraser, "Lieutenant Hector McDonnell died of his wounds, 8 May 1760." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

“Capt Ince and four officers died of their wounds.” The Pennsylvania Gazette, 3 July 1760.

“Battle of Sainte-Foy.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Aug. 2018,

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

The Siege of Quebec: Week Eleven

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
September 5th, 1759. The whole of our Light Infantry, under command of Colonel How, to march 1/4 mile to the westward of Goram's post (formerly mentioned), where they are to embark on board the men-of-war and transports. As we were passing the river Else Chemin the enemy fired from a two-gun battery. None of us hurt ; prodigiously crowded on board.

6th. Nothing extraordinary. We drove up with the flood tide opposite Cape Rouge, discovered some men on the north shore fortyfying the bay to the eastward of the Cape, as also a house which they occupy'd.

This evening His Excellency General Wolfe, with the three Brigadier and the army of the intended attack, embarked. The army in great spirits.

7th. Remains on the same anchorage ground as yesterday. The General in the Hunter sloop-of-war went up the length of Point au Tremble to reconoitre. The enemy continues to word on the north shore.

8th. The General with the Hunter sloop returned at 12 o'cl., orders for 1500 men to prepare to land on north shore, and wait the night tide, under the command of the Brigadiers Moncton and Murray.

A faint.

The Hunter sloop-of-war, one transport with Roy. Americans, and another with Light Infantry, to fall up to Point au Tremble, and return with the ebb tide in the morning. The weather very rainy.

9th. The weather continues very rainy, which prevents the 1500 men landing. We remained off Point au Tremble. The remaining vessels in their former station opposite to Capr Rouge. We can;t perceive any works on the beach, only small entrenchments from the mill to a house about 300 yards to the eastward (belonging to Point au Tremble), and discovered but very few men. 60 bataves on shore ; no floating batterys.

10th. At 8 o'clock this morning returned to Cape Rouge with the ebb tide. This morning a part of the army landed on the south shore, as also three companys Light Infantry, in order to refresh the men and dry their camp equipage after the constant heave rains we had these two past days. Capt. Fraser's co remained on board by lott.

The General went down the river to reconoitre the north shore.

A soldier of Capt. Delaune's co. fell overboard and drowned.

11th. Nothing extraordinary. The troops that landed yesterday remains on shore ; the situation of the enemy the same as the past two days.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, November 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Ten

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 29th, 1759. We are informed at Point Levy camp that three Rangers have brought in three scalps from St Andre, and took a courier with letters, orders, and directions to the captains of militia and friers, desiring them to keep constant guards, and inform the inhabitants that we shall be soon obliged to leave the country.

30th. By order of his Excellency General Wolfe the three Brigadiers assembled in order to consul the measures most practicable for the good of the service. The result of the conference not known by us.

31st. By a deserter we are informed that the enemy are sickly, and discontented with their Indians. Meeting four Indians of the Mohawk tribe with an officer from General Amherst, treacherously deceived them by pretending friendship, and at the same time conducted to a party of French, who made them prisoners, and they are confined on board the frigates formerly mentioned. At nigh the Sea Horse man-of-war, three catts, and one schooner passed the town ; after receiving alarm, cannonading from the battery. None hurt.

September 1st. All the houses below Montmorency Falls, or to the eastward, sett on fire by our army. This forenoon some cannon carried from the Montmorency side to the camp at Point Levy. Our troops there expect an attack from the enemy this night, which is very desirable to all our gentlemen.

2nd. The remaining cannon carried from Montmorency this day.

The Assistant Qr-Master marked the encampments for the Brigade and Lt. Infantry from Montmorency to the left of our cantonments. We hear that the additional company of our regt. are in the river.

3rd. This morning the troops at Montmorency decamped, embarked in boats without the least molestation or advantages taken at that important time of their drawing off. Passing the Point of Orleans, the enemy fired from their batterys (to the westwd of the Falls) both shott and shells none of which made any execution. The enemy's generosity in the above particular and critical juncture is a plain proof that Monsieur Montcalm will make no other use of the Canadians than defend their capital. He must be concerned to see Montmorency abandoned, it not being safe for him to depend on part of his troops to give the least annoyance ; likewise permitting us to detach what numbers we please, to lay waste their country, and still remain in his entrenched camp at Beauport.

This day Captn Cameron of Colonel Fraser's regt. died, much and justly regretted, as he was a most agreeable, sensible, and benevolent man.

We hear the Sunderland man-of-war was attacked the night of the 29th ulto. by 75 bataves; the enemy were repulsed with the loss of 4 bataves taken. In orders, the Light Infantry commanded by Capt. Carden to return to the regt. and all the corps of Lt. Infantry to receive their orders from Colonel How.

4th. An officer and three Rangers arrived in camp with dispatches from General Amherst to General Wolfe, whom they left at Crown Point 8th of Aug. making all preparations necessary for pursuing his design and first the possession of Lake Champlain. We hear nothing of the contents in these dispatches further than a random shott carrying off Colonel Townshend, one ensign and three men of the Light Infantry.

This evening Capt. Cameron aforesaid buried, and Capt. Fraser of Culduthell with his additional company arrived in the harbour.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, November 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Nine

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 22nd, 1759. Some of our men went to pull pease this forenoon, who discovered a party of the enemy and returned. At night the Admiral returned from his reconoitring cruise.

23rd. A few men on horseback made their appearance this morning, but on seeing a small party of our men make towards them they thought proper to retire. At 12 o'clock received orders to get under arms, the whole to march in three separate divisions, viz. the 3rd battalion Roy. Americans to the right of our camp the length of St. Croiz, the 15th regt. with Capt. Fraser's co. of Lt. Infantry the length of St. Nicholas to the left of our camp, under the command of the General, the former division by Major Dalling ; the 3rd division in boats, consisting of co. Light Infantry, commanded by Capt. Charters of the Royal Americans. The consequence of which scout ended in burning a battery, a sloop, and 2 saw mills. The real intention was that if any of the enemy made their appearance, and that we could not bring them to battle, Capt. Simon Fraser with his co. and 50 volunteers of the 15th regt. were to lay in ambush till next morning, when they were to retire. At night Major Dalling returned with his division, exchanged a few shott with the enemy, and made one prisoner.

24th. The General gave orders for the whole to prepare to embark to-morrow.

25th. This morning fell down the Squirel, a sloop-of-war, with the admiral, general, and the wounded officers.

In the evening the 15th regt. and 3rd battalion Roy. Americans embarked. Capt. Fraser's co. covered the retreat ; the enemy fired on us a few shot, only one sustained.

26th. An order from General Wolfe desiring Colonel Young with the 3rd Roy. Americans and 200 marines to land, and keep possession of one former ground at St. Anthony. The 15th regt. and Lt. Infantry to embark on board their flatt-bottomed boats, and return to Point Levy.

27th. Passed the batterys ; not one shott fired at us. Arrived at Point Levy at 4 o'clock, where we learnt that 1000 of the enemy in boats went up the river, who, they imagined, would fall in with us coming down the river. General Wolfe indisposed ; greatly regreted by the whole army.

We were ordered to take post in our former cantonments 3 miles from Point Levy camp, and to the westward of our battery.

28th. Remained in our cantonments all day ; nothing extraordinary happened. At night, by favour of the flood and an easterly wind gale the Lostoff frigate, Hunter sloop-of-war, two catts, and one schooner passed the town ; 200 shott fired at them ; one sailor killed, and two wounded.

The face of the camp at Point Levy entirely changed to the great encouragement given to venders of all kinds.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Transport Vessels for the Highland Battalions

Whitehall March 10, 1757.
Ldrs of the Admty. 

My Lords
I am commanded to signify to your Lordships His Majesty's Pleasure that you do forthwith cause a sufficient number of the Transport Vessels, (ordered by my Letters of the 22d past) to be fitted up, victualled, & provided with Bedding, for receiving on board, and conveying to North America, at the rate of two tons for each person, Two Highland Battalions of Foot, commanded by Lt. Col. Montgomery & Lt. Col. Fraser, Each Battalion consisting of 44 commission & Staff officers, 80 Non Commissioned officers, 20 Drummers, & 1000 private Men, together with the usual allowance of 6 Women, & 3 Servant to Each Company. And it's the Kings' further Pleasure that the said Transport Vessels so fitted up, be directed to repair to Cork in Ireland, under such convoy as your Lordships shall judge sufficient, where the Two Battalions above mentioned are to be embarked; and from whence such of the Transport Vessels, as shall have on board the Battalion, commanded by Lieut. Colonel Montgomery are to proceed to Charles Town in South Carolina, and the remainder, with the Battalion, commanded by Lieut. Colonel Fraser are to proceed to Halifax, in Nova Scotia, at which place they are to be respectively disembarked; And your Lordships will accordingly give the necessary Orders for this purpose to the Commanding Officer of the s Officer, commanding the said Convoy, & Transport Vessels.


Draft to the Ldrs of the Admty
March 10th, 1757.
2 Tents, Baggage &c
Transports for Highlanders &c.

After arriving at Glasgow, newspaper accounts depict the main body of Fraser's Highlanders, on or about 19 April 1757, proceeding west to Port Patrick en route to Donaghadee, Ireland, where they would continue their march some 400 miles south to Cork, Ireland and depart for North America in eight transport ships under cover of the Enterprize, a 40-gun man of war.

Note: Originally commissioned Norwich in May 1718, she was later renamed Enterprize on 23 May 1744.

Colonel Simon Fraser
From aboard the Ann transport ship in Cove Harbour, Colonel Fraser wrote on June 28th, 1757:

My Dr Sir,
     Tho I have been long hurryd I am not less so than ever & have but just time to tell you that we marched safe and sound thro Ireland without the loss of a man since we landed they hardly gave us time to cool our bloods when they embarked us & here we are all alive and merry.

    I don’t know if I said anything in answer to yours about the meal but it must be sent for & distributed first to the widows, then to the wives & so on to the third and fourth generation of them that loved me well enough to follow me. As to the Deserters I woud have them be sent by the first troops to Glasgow & Mr Geo Buchanan Junr there will send them by some Capt transporting convicts to Halifax where we are destined to & this I would have done with the rest if any are taken. God bless you my Dr Sir, the Wyfie poor beoch, the bairns, Hopefull &c &c I shall find time to write you at sea.  

Yrs S. Fraser

Sergeant James Thompson
The regiment would ultimately depart Cork for Halifax, Nova Scotia on June 30, 1757. The following is an excerpt from Sergeant James Thompson's diary on the sailing to North America:

     Our Regiment rendezvou'd at Cork, there to embark for Service, somewhere or other in North America. We sail'd with seal'd orders, which were only to be open'd when we reach'd a certain latitude. The hir'd vessel I was embark'd in was call'd the Martello, a beautiful new ship, and it was her first voyage. The Captain did not know her trim, and the first few days after our sailing she would run away from the Commodore in no time, in spite of our short'ning sail, and for this high offense, which he couldn't help, the Captain had frequently a shot fired at him, to make him keep under the wing of the Commodore, the shot however, did no further injury than subject the Captain to a fine of six and eight pence for every shot. One day we had a fine stiff breeze and our ship actually outsailed the whole of the Fleet altho' only under bare poles. When the Commodore saw this he was satisfied it wasn't the Captain's fault, and he made him pay no more six-and-eight pence per shot. The ship was so tight that she didn't require pumping the whole of the voyage, which was a lucky circumstance indeed.

     At last, we discover'd the Commodore's Signal for the whole of the Fleet to heave-to, and when we had done this as cleverly as we could, the Signal was made for all Commanding Officers of Corps to go on board the Commodore's ship. This was to make known our Destination, and to receive their Orders accordingly. We soon after found out that our place of destination was Halifax. As good luck would have it, the Fleet was safe, and soon after we cast our Anchor, our Captain was anxious to try the tightness of his ship and gave his orders to have her pump'd. The men had difficulty in getting the pumps to draw, and when, at last, water came, it was as black as my Bonnet, and it produced such a stench, that it would soon have poison'd all the men on board. It turn'd out that instead of pumping out, 'afaith they were obliged to pump in, to prevent the Troops getting sick.

     When we landed at Halifax, we found our Commander-in-Chief General Wolfe there, drilling away the men, and making fight sham-battles at a place round the Town called Deptford, where the ground is level. We were not long at Halifax when we received Orders to set sail for the River Saint Lawrence, and in a few days we came to anchor opposite the harbour of Louisbourg which we knew it was our business to try and take.

Transport Ships at Halifax, 1757
Further research indicates the hired vessel Martello that Serjeant Thompson spoke of may have actually been named Myrtilla, as recorded on October 17, 1757 with the Second Highland Battalion in Halifax Harbour. Thompson describes her as "...a beautiful new ship," and early records confirm she was originally built in 1754. Because Thompson's diary was recorded some years later, it would not be uncommon, due to advanced age, to have erred in his recollections.

Return of Col. Fraser's transport ships in Halifax Harbour, October 1757
Return of Col. Fraser's transport ships in Halifax Harbour, October 1757
Note: The Matilla transport ship, as depicted in the above Return in Halifax Harbour, was most likely named Matilda, commanded by Captain Wing, and recorded as returning to England with five other transport ships, viz., Kent; Neptune; Brotherly Love; Myrtilla; Duchess of Hamilton. [Lloyd's List - "Ships arriving at Downs from North America," 12 Apr. 1757.]

Transport Vessels Depart Louisbourg, 1759
In the early summer of 1759, the British Fleet set sail from Louisbourg for Quebec, in all approximately 9,000 soldiers strong. The regiments were divided into three divisions/brigades [white - 1st brigade, red - 2nd brigade, blue - 3rd brigade], and to further distinguish between regiments the ships were dressed with color-coded vanes. Colonel Fraser's transport vessels for this voyage were as follows:

White Division - 1st Brigade
Colonel Fraser, 78th Foot
Vanes: white, and two blue balls

Ship: Ann & Elizabeth
Shipmaster: Wm. Robinson
Tons: 215
Troops: 113
Taken up: London
With one cutter boat

Ship: Argyle
Shipmaster: Alexr. Morrison
Tons: 300
Troops: 193
Taken up: Boston
With three whale boats

Ship: Jane
Shipmaster: Jno. Garnett
Tons: 273
Troops: 97
Taken up: London
With one cutter boat

Ship: James & Henrietta
Shipmaster: Jno. Meeke
Tons: 357
Troops: 196
Taken up: London
With one flat boat

Ship: Resolution
Shipmaster: Zachy Marshall
Tons: 238
Troops: 122
Taken up: London
With one cutter boat

Ship: Thornton
Shipmaster: Jno. Ekshaw
Tons: 331
Troops: 221
Taken up: New York

Ship: Venus [2]
Shipmaster: Wm. Duffield
Tons: 317
Troops: 208
Taken up: London
With two cutter boats

Total troops: 1150

Note: Venus [2] was the second of two vessels by the same name operating for the British Fleet at this time. The first Venus transport vessel operating in the area was commanded by Shipmaster Johnson.

“Transport Vessels for the Highland Battalions.” Letter received by Lords of Admiralty, 10 March 1757. America and West Indies, Original Correspondence, etc. Despatches to governors and others, 1756-1757, C.O. 5 ed., vol. 212, pp. 423-426. Public Archives Canada. Print.

"Transports in the White Division." Northcliffe Collection: Series 1: Robert Monckton Papers. LAC, Microfilm C-366.

Col. Simon Fraser, "Colonel Fraser in Cove Harbour, 28 June. 1757." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

Earl John Chapman, “Troop Transport Martello.” Received by, Rootsweb, 10 Apr. 2010, Accessed 2 July 2017.

"Halifax Harbour Transporte List." Elizabeth Rose Family papers. NAS, GD125-22-17, p. 18.

Lloyd's Register Group, “Lloyd's Register of Ships.” Lloyd's Register Group Limited, 2017,

Andrew Welsh, "Enterprize departs Cork, Ireland, 30 June 1757." The Magazine of magazines, compiled from original pieces, with extracts from the most celebrated books and periodical compositions published in Europe, vol. 13, p. 575. London. Printed for W. Owen, 1757.

British Fourth Rate Ships of the Line, "Norwich Renamed Enterprize, 1744." Three Decks, Warships in the Age of Sail, 2017. Accessed 2 July 2017. Web.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.  All rights reserved.

Monday, October 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Eight

Journal written during the siege of Quebec
August 15th, 1759. Remained in camp all day ; the weather rainy. Nothing extraordinary.

16th. This forenoon a small party of the enemy shewed themselves to the left of our encampment, but were repulsed by a few of our advanced guard.

17th. This forenoon the General gave in orders that the two battalions and two companys of Light Infantry should prepare to embark on board their respective vessels, as the former distribution. At 10 o'clock we struck our tents and embarked, where we remained till the night following. The other company of Light Infantry with the 200 marines to remain on shore till further orders, under the command of Captn. Fraser.

18th. At 12 o'clock this day embarked Capt. Simon Fraser with Delaunne's co. of Lt. Infantry. At the same time the General called for commanding officers of companys in order to explain his order of battle at landing next, or at the attack intended on the village Chambeau, where according to intelligence formerly given (by prisoners taken), there are some magazines, and consequently men to endeavour their defence. After which explanation the General sent orders to the commanding officers of the marines to keep the tents of the two regts. standing, that as the enemy might discover the embarkation of Delaune's company in the daytime, seeing the camp as formerly excepting the tents of the Light Infantry, as also keeping the face of the encampment as formerly with a number of large fires, that from these circumstances the enemy will probably conjecture that the tents struck is only the Light Infantry, being detached, &c. Likewise oblige them to keep their quarters, not knowing the infantry's intention or destination.

At 11 o'clock we embarked in boats, and agreeable to orders rendevouzed at the War transport. At 12 o'clock we sett of accompany'd by two floating batterys, for the intended attack of Chambeau, which lies on the north shore, 7 leagues up the river Point au Tremble and 21 leagues ffrom Quebec.

19th. By daybreak we drew nigh the rendevouze formerly mentioned, at the same time discovered a large topsail schooner on her way from shore, and bearing down upon us, which would not be so convenient ; but in a little time they altered their course, by which we understood they meant to scheere off. About an hour after we landed, to our surprise without opposition, being two miles below the church of St. Joseph. We formed a column, Delaune's and Carden's company forming the van, and Fraser's company, with a detachmt of Royal Americans, the rear guard. As churches were generally the posts they occupied we marched in the aforesaid order without any molestation, excepting a few shott on our rear which did not disturb us much, when our van came in sight of the church of St. Joseph, a Capt. of De La Sare's regiment with about 60 regulars made a show of making a stand, which obliged the Brigadier to make a disposition of attacking, not knowing but they might be a part of a larger body. On their seeing the head of our column draw nigh, the Capt. and his men withdrew to the wood without firing a shott. Near this church found a store-house in which store was all the effects including equipage and apparel, of all the officers in Quebec, civil and military, besides arms and ammunition, the whole value as 90.000 pounds sterling money, which we consumed by fire. We remained at Chambeau till 1/2 past three o'clock in the evening ; being low water we embarked on board our boats, carrying off some sheep, leaving 100 cattle shott on the beach. Major Dalling's Light Infantry covered the retreat, which was done in pretty good order, and without the loss of one man. After we were embarked, and about 500 yards from shore, the General ordered one Capt. Mophak, a sea officer who had the command and direction of the flatt-bottomed boats when without the troops or at embarking or debarking, with two floating batterys and two flatt-bottomed boats with troops in them, to attack the schooner which lay dry on the sout shore. On the boars approaching the enemy fired two shott, abandon'd her, and sett her on fire. As we were coming down the river we was fired on by a party of Canadians from behind logs on the south shore ; none hurt. Arrived at 10 o'clock this night at our camp ; part of the troops did not disembark.

20th. The remaining part of the troops disembarked, and the marines in camp embarked. Rainy weather. At night disturbed by our sentry's firing at some straggling enemy coming to sculk by our camp ; the Light Infantry under arms till day, during which time it rained very hard.

21st. This morning the Brigadr (Genl Murray) sent to the camp desiring Capt. Fraser to come on board, signifying to him that he considered a diversion up the river to be of great consequence, and that every measure practicable should be taken to destroy the French shipping (which lay about 24 leagues above the town or city of Quebec) in order to clear the communication twixt us and Mr. Amherst, proposing to send Capt. Fraser with despatches to his Excellency General Wolfe, which afterwards was dropt. Forenoon of the day Admiral Holmes went on board a schooner in order to go reconoitre the French shipping and sound the channel.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Companies of the 78th Regiment, 1763

As early as March 1759 Colonel Fraser's 78th Highlanders consisted of 14 companies and over 1500 men and women, each commanded by a commissioned officer. By 1763 the total number was reduced quite significantly to a regiment just under 900 in strength. Although thoroughly documented muster rolls [complete with soldier's names] are not available for the early years, it's towards the latter end of the war when would finally discover the names of the men and women who graced their country in what will be forever recognized as one of the single most important military campaigns in North America's early history.

Muster rolls have remained an important document in military accountability for literally hundreds of years. In addition to identifying the names in a company, battalion, or regiment, they sometimes contained a 'record of events,' recording activities engaged in by the particular unit. The primary function of the many rolls maintained was to provide basic information about the identities, numbers, condition, equipage, and pay status of the men and women that comprised the British Army in order to facilitate administrative control. The rolls would have been created at the formation of a regiment, and continued monthly [bimonthly, and even semi-annually] as a way to track the status of each member, and finally ending when the unit was disbanded. It has been reported commanding officers' sometimes 'padded their rolls' [accounting for more men than they actually had] in order to receive extra rations at the end of the month. 

The earliest known surviving subsistence rolls [muster rolls created to document the official discharge dates, including funding victualed to each soldier] for the 78th Highlanders are dated 19 July 1763, with a subsequent set created one month later in August. Though errors have been discovered in the final reporting [we would expect to see incomplete or ambiguous reporting when dealing with about 900 names], these rolls serve as the Regiment's official discharge roster at the time of its disbandment.

Colonel Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 1763

“Revolutionary War Rolls, 1894-1913.” National Archives Catalog, War Department, National Archives, Washington, D.C. , 1947,

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.