Showing posts with label Campaigns. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Campaigns. Show all posts

Saturday, December 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Twelve

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
12th. By this day's orders it appears the General intends a most vigorous attack, supposed behind the town, where to appearance a landing is impracticable.

Our disposition terminates thus ; that the Light Infantry are to lead and land first, in order to maintain a picquering with the enemy (as also cover the troops' debarkation) till the army take a footing on the heights.

We are to embark on board our flatt-bottomed boats by 12 o'clock and upon the Sunderland man-of-war showing a light, we are to repair to that rendevouze, where the boats will range in a line and proceed when ordered in the manner directed ; viz. the Light Infantry the van, and the troops to follow by seniority. The army compleated to 70 rounds ammunition each man ; and the flatt-bottomed boats to repair to the different vessells, and proportionably divide according to the number on board the ship.

By 10 o'clock Colonel How called for the volunteers in the Light Infantry, signifying to them, that the General intends that a few men may land before the Light Infantry and army, and scramble up the rock, when ordered by Capt. Delaune, who is to be first in the boat along with us ; saying that he thought proper to propose it to us, as he judged it owuld be a choice, and that is any of us survived, might depend on our being recommended to the General. made answer : We were sensible of the honour he did, in making us the first offer of an affair of such importance as our landing first, where an opportunity occured of distinguishing ourselves, assuring him his agreeable order would be put in execution with the greatest activity, care, and vigour in our power.

he observing our number consisted only of eight men, viz. :

1st. Fitz-gerald
2nd. Robertson
3rd. Stewart
4th. Mc Allester
5th. Mackenzie
6th Mc Pherson
7th. Cameron
8th. Bell

Ordered we should take 2 men of our own choice from three companys of Lt. Infantry, which in all made 24 men. Which order being put in execution we embarked in our boat. Fine weather, the night calm, and silence all over.

Waiting impatiently for the signal of proceeding.

September 12th and 13th. Morning, 2 o'clock, the signal was made for our proceeding, which was done in pretty good order, the same disposition formerly mentioned. When we came pretty close to the heights we rowed close in with the north shore, which made the Hunter sloop-of-war, who lay of, suspect us to be enemy, not being apprised of our coming down. However, we passed two sentries on the beach without being asked any questions. The third sentry challenged, who is there? Was answered by Capt. Fraser in the French tongue, saying we are the provision boats from Montreal, cautioning the sentry to be silent, otherwise he would expose us to the fire of the English man-of-war. This took place till such time as their officer was acquainted, who had reason to suspect us, ordering all his sentrys to fire upon us ; but by this time the aforesaid volunteer was up in eminence, and a part of the Light Infantry following. After we got up we only received on fire, which we returned briskly, and took a prisoner, the remaining part of the enemy flying into a field of corn. At same time we discovered a body of men making towards us, who we did not know (it being only daybreak), but were the enemy ; we put ourselves in the best posture of making a defence ; two of us advanced, when they came close, and challenged them, when we found it was Capt. Fraser with his co., who we join'd, and advanced to attack this party of the enemy lodged in the field, who directly fled, before us ; by pursuing close the Lieut. and his drummer came in to us. In this interval the whole of the Light Infantry were on the heights, and a part of the regts. We remained till the whole army took post, when we were detached to silence a battery who kept firing on our shipping who were coming down the river. This was effected without the loss of a man ; the enemy placed one of the cannon to flank, drew off, and got into the woods which was within forty yards of the battery. We demolished the powder, and came away.

On our return we saw our army forming the line of battle ; we (Light Infantry), who stood about 800 paces from the line, were ordered to face outwards, and cover the rear of our line, as there was a body of the enemy in their rear and front of the Light Infantry. About 6 o'clock observed the enemy coming from town, and forming under cover of their cannon ; we saw they were numerous, therefore the General made the proper disposition for battle ; they marched up in one extensive line. When they came within a reconoitring view they halted, advancing a few of their Irregulars, who kept picquering with one or two platoons, who were advanced for that purpose, at the same itm playing with three field pieces of our line. On which the General ordered the line to lay down till the enemy came close, when they were to rise up and give their fire. The enemy, thinking by our disappearing, that their cannon disconcerted us, they thought proper to embrace the opportunity ; wheeling back from the centre, and formed three powerful columns, advanced very regular with their cannon playing on us. By this time we had one field piece on the right, and two howats on the left who began to give fire ; the enemy huzza'd, advancing with a short trott (which was effectually shortened to a number of them) they began their fire on the left, the whole of them reclining that way, but received and sustained such a check that the smell of gunpowder became nautious ; they broke their line, running to all parts of the compass.

To our great concern and loss General Wolfe was mortally wounded ; but the Brigadiers, who were also wounded, excepting Murray, seeing the enemy break, ordered the Granadiers to charge in among them with their bayonets, as also the Highlanders with their swords, which did some execution, particularyy in the pursuit.

During the lined being engaged, a body of the enemy attacked a part of the Light Infantry on the right, were repulsed, and thought proper to follow the fait of traverse sailing. As I was not in the line of battle I can't say what the latest disposition of the enemy way before engaging.

How soon this action was over we received a part of our intrenching tools and began to make redoubts, not knowing but next morning we would have another to cut, as the enemy expected 13 companies of Granadiers to join, and about 2000 men who occupy'd a post mean Point au Treamp, but it seemed they were not recovered of the former morning's portion ; not liking English medicines.

This affair gave great spirit to the whole army, notwithstanding the loss of much regretted Life of the Army, General Wolfe. The men kept-sober, which was a great maxim of their bravery.

Towards the evening a part of the enemy, who were the Regulars, formed, who seemed to make a shew of standing ; Colonel Burton, 48th regt. was drawn opposite with a field piece in their front, which disputed them. We took post in our redoubts ; not having the camp equipage on shore, part of the army lay on their arms in the field till next morning. All quiet during the night of the 13th.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, December 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Eleven

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
September 5th, 1759. The whole of our Light Infantry, under command of Colonel How, to march 1/4 mile to the westward of Goram's post (formerly mentioned), where they are to embark on board the men-of-war and transports. As we were passing the river Else Chemin the enemy fired from a two-gun battery. None of us hurt ; prodigiously crowded on board.

6th. Nothing extraordinary. We drove up with the flood tide opposite Cape Rouge, discovered some men on the north shore fortyfying the bay to the eastward of the Cape, as also a house which they occupy'd.

This evening His Excellency General Wolfe, with the three Brigadier and the army of the intended attack, embarked. The army in great spirits.

7th. Remains on the same anchorage ground as yesterday. The General in the Hunter sloop-of-war went up the length of Point au Tremble to reconoitre. The enemy continues to word on the north shore.

8th. The General with the Hunter sloop returned at 12 o'cl., orders for 1500 men to prepare to land on north shore, and wait the night tide, under the command of the Brigadiers Moncton and Murray.

A faint.

The Hunter sloop-of-war, one transport with Roy. Americans, and another with Light Infantry, to fall up to Point au Tremble, and return with the ebb tide in the morning. The weather very rainy.

9th. The weather continues very rainy, which prevents the 1500 men landing. We remained off Point au Tremble. The remaining vessels in their former station opposite to Capr Rouge. We can;t perceive any works on the beach, only small entrenchments from the mill to a house about 300 yards to the eastward (belonging to Point au Tremble), and discovered but very few men. 60 bataves on shore ; no floating batterys.

10th. At 8 o'clock this morning returned to Cape Rouge with the ebb tide. This morning a part of the army landed on the south shore, as also three companys Light Infantry, in order to refresh the men and dry their camp equipage after the constant heave rains we had these two past days. Capt. Fraser's co remained on board by lott.

The General went down the river to reconoitre the north shore.

A soldier of Capt. Delaune's co. fell overboard and drowned.

11th. Nothing extraordinary. The troops that landed yesterday remains on shore ; the situation of the enemy the same as the past two days.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, November 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Ten

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 29th, 1759. We are informed at Point Levy camp that three Rangers have brought in three scalps from St Andre, and took a courier with letters, orders, and directions to the captains of militia and friers, desiring them to keep constant guards, and inform the inhabitants that we shall be soon obliged to leave the country.

30th. By order of his Excellency General Wolfe the three Brigadiers assembled in order to consul the measures most practicable for the good of the service. The result of the conference not known by us.

31st. By a deserter we are informed that the enemy are sickly, and discontented with their Indians. Meeting four Indians of the Mohawk tribe with an officer from General Amherst, treacherously deceived them by pretending friendship, and at the same time conducted to a party of French, who made them prisoners, and they are confined on board the frigates formerly mentioned. At nigh the Sea Horse man-of-war, three catts, and one schooner passed the town ; after receiving alarm, cannonading from the battery. None hurt.

September 1st. All the houses below Montmorency Falls, or to the eastward, sett on fire by our army. This forenoon some cannon carried from the Montmorency side to the camp at Point Levy. Our troops there expect an attack from the enemy this night, which is very desirable to all our gentlemen.

2nd. The remaining cannon carried from Montmorency this day.

The Assistant Qr-Master marked the encampments for the Brigade and Lt. Infantry from Montmorency to the left of our cantonments. We hear that the additional company of our regt. are in the river.

3rd. This morning the troops at Montmorency decamped, embarked in boats without the least molestation or advantages taken at that important time of their drawing off. Passing the Point of Orleans, the enemy fired from their batterys (to the westwd of the Falls) both shott and shells none of which made any execution. The enemy's generosity in the above particular and critical juncture is a plain proof that Monsieur Montcalm will make no other use of the Canadians than defend their capital. He must be concerned to see Montmorency abandoned, it not being safe for him to depend on part of his troops to give the least annoyance ; likewise permitting us to detach what numbers we please, to lay waste their country, and still remain in his entrenched camp at Beauport.

This day Captn Cameron of Colonel Fraser's regt. died, much and justly regretted, as he was a most agreeable, sensible, and benevolent man.

We hear the Sunderland man-of-war was attacked the night of the 29th ulto. by 75 bataves; the enemy were repulsed with the loss of 4 bataves taken. In orders, the Light Infantry commanded by Capt. Carden to return to the regt. and all the corps of Lt. Infantry to receive their orders from Colonel How.

4th. An officer and three Rangers arrived in camp with dispatches from General Amherst to General Wolfe, whom they left at Crown Point 8th of Aug. making all preparations necessary for pursuing his design and first the possession of Lake Champlain. We hear nothing of the contents in these dispatches further than a random shott carrying off Colonel Townshend, one ensign and three men of the Light Infantry.

This evening Capt. Cameron aforesaid buried, and Capt. Fraser of Culduthell with his additional company arrived in the harbour.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, November 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Nine

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 22nd, 1759. Some of our men went to pull pease this forenoon, who discovered a party of the enemy and returned. At night the Admiral returned from his reconoitring cruise.

23rd. A few men on horseback made their appearance this morning, but on seeing a small party of our men make towards them they thought proper to retire. At 12 o'clock received orders to get under arms, the whole to march in three separate divisions, viz. the 3rd battalion Roy. Americans to the right of our camp the length of St. Croiz, the 15th regt. with Capt. Fraser's co. of Lt. Infantry the length of St. Nicholas to the left of our camp, under the command of the General, the former division by Major Dalling ; the 3rd division in boats, consisting of co. Light Infantry, commanded by Capt. Charters of the Royal Americans. The consequence of which scout ended in burning a battery, a sloop, and 2 saw mills. The real intention was that if any of the enemy made their appearance, and that we could not bring them to battle, Capt. Simon Fraser with his co. and 50 volunteers of the 15th regt. were to lay in ambush till next morning, when they were to retire. At night Major Dalling returned with his division, exchanged a few shott with the enemy, and made one prisoner.

24th. The General gave orders for the whole to prepare to embark to-morrow.

25th. This morning fell down the Squirel, a sloop-of-war, with the admiral, general, and the wounded officers.

In the evening the 15th regt. and 3rd battalion Roy. Americans embarked. Capt. Fraser's co. covered the retreat ; the enemy fired on us a few shot, only one sustained.

26th. An order from General Wolfe desiring Colonel Young with the 3rd Roy. Americans and 200 marines to land, and keep possession of one former ground at St. Anthony. The 15th regt. and Lt. Infantry to embark on board their flatt-bottomed boats, and return to Point Levy.

27th. Passed the batterys ; not one shott fired at us. Arrived at Point Levy at 4 o'clock, where we learnt that 1000 of the enemy in boats went up the river, who, they imagined, would fall in with us coming down the river. General Wolfe indisposed ; greatly regreted by the whole army.

We were ordered to take post in our former cantonments 3 miles from Point Levy camp, and to the westward of our battery.

28th. Remained in our cantonments all day ; nothing extraordinary happened. At night, by favour of the flood and an easterly wind gale the Lostoff frigate, Hunter sloop-of-war, two catts, and one schooner passed the town ; 200 shott fired at them ; one sailor killed, and two wounded.

The face of the camp at Point Levy entirely changed to the great encouragement given to venders of all kinds.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Monday, October 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Eight

Journal written during the siege of Quebec
August 15th, 1759. Remained in camp all day ; the weather rainy. Nothing extraordinary.

16th. This forenoon a small party of the enemy shewed themselves to the left of our encampment, but were repulsed by a few of our advanced guard.

17th. This forenoon the General gave in orders that the two battalions and two companys of Light Infantry should prepare to embark on board their respective vessels, as the former distribution. At 10 o'clock we struck our tents and embarked, where we remained till the night following. The other company of Light Infantry with the 200 marines to remain on shore till further orders, under the command of Captn. Fraser.

18th. At 12 o'clock this day embarked Capt. Simon Fraser with Delaunne's co. of Lt. Infantry. At the same time the General called for commanding officers of companys in order to explain his order of battle at landing next, or at the attack intended on the village Chambeau, where according to intelligence formerly given (by prisoners taken), there are some magazines, and consequently men to endeavour their defence. After which explanation the General sent orders to the commanding officers of the marines to keep the tents of the two regts. standing, that as the enemy might discover the embarkation of Delaune's company in the daytime, seeing the camp as formerly excepting the tents of the Light Infantry, as also keeping the face of the encampment as formerly with a number of large fires, that from these circumstances the enemy will probably conjecture that the tents struck is only the Light Infantry, being detached, &c. Likewise oblige them to keep their quarters, not knowing the infantry's intention or destination.

At 11 o'clock we embarked in boats, and agreeable to orders rendevouzed at the War transport. At 12 o'clock we sett of accompany'd by two floating batterys, for the intended attack of Chambeau, which lies on the north shore, 7 leagues up the river Point au Tremble and 21 leagues ffrom Quebec.

19th. By daybreak we drew nigh the rendevouze formerly mentioned, at the same time discovered a large topsail schooner on her way from shore, and bearing down upon us, which would not be so convenient ; but in a little time they altered their course, by which we understood they meant to scheere off. About an hour after we landed, to our surprise without opposition, being two miles below the church of St. Joseph. We formed a column, Delaune's and Carden's company forming the van, and Fraser's company, with a detachmt of Royal Americans, the rear guard. As churches were generally the posts they occupied we marched in the aforesaid order without any molestation, excepting a few shott on our rear which did not disturb us much, when our van came in sight of the church of St. Joseph, a Capt. of De La Sare's regiment with about 60 regulars made a show of making a stand, which obliged the Brigadier to make a disposition of attacking, not knowing but they might be a part of a larger body. On their seeing the head of our column draw nigh, the Capt. and his men withdrew to the wood without firing a shott. Near this church found a store-house in which store was all the effects including equipage and apparel, of all the officers in Quebec, civil and military, besides arms and ammunition, the whole value as 90.000 pounds sterling money, which we consumed by fire. We remained at Chambeau till 1/2 past three o'clock in the evening ; being low water we embarked on board our boats, carrying off some sheep, leaving 100 cattle shott on the beach. Major Dalling's Light Infantry covered the retreat, which was done in pretty good order, and without the loss of one man. After we were embarked, and about 500 yards from shore, the General ordered one Capt. Mophak, a sea officer who had the command and direction of the flatt-bottomed boats when without the troops or at embarking or debarking, with two floating batterys and two flatt-bottomed boats with troops in them, to attack the schooner which lay dry on the sout shore. On the boars approaching the enemy fired two shott, abandon'd her, and sett her on fire. As we were coming down the river we was fired on by a party of Canadians from behind logs on the south shore ; none hurt. Arrived at 10 o'clock this night at our camp ; part of the troops did not disembark.

20th. The remaining part of the troops disembarked, and the marines in camp embarked. Rainy weather. At night disturbed by our sentry's firing at some straggling enemy coming to sculk by our camp ; the Light Infantry under arms till day, during which time it rained very hard.

21st. This morning the Brigadr (Genl Murray) sent to the camp desiring Capt. Fraser to come on board, signifying to him that he considered a diversion up the river to be of great consequence, and that every measure practicable should be taken to destroy the French shipping (which lay about 24 leagues above the town or city of Quebec) in order to clear the communication twixt us and Mr. Amherst, proposing to send Capt. Fraser with despatches to his Excellency General Wolfe, which afterwards was dropt. Forenoon of the day Admiral Holmes went on board a schooner in order to go reconoitre the French shipping and sound the channel.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Monday, October 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Seven

August 8th, 1759. This morning by 10 o'clock were ordered to embark on board our boats (it being tide of flood) to attempt a landing on the north shore opposite to the church of Point au Tremble. The disposition of our landing was that Major Dalling's Light Infantry (being but 3 cos.) should lead and land first. The Marines to bring up the rear of the 15th regt. When the signal was made (which was a wave of the brigadier's hat) a reef of rocks ahead rendered it impossible to row directly in : Capt. Simon Fraser ordered two boats to row a little to the left, which was followed by the boat in which he was, containing the remaining part of the company belonging to him, who got clear of the rocks, pushed directly in, and landed. We drew up on the beach opposite to a body of the enemy posted in a copse in our front. Capt. Fraser discovering another body on our left, besides several smaller parties moving between the copse and the houses of the village Point au Tremble, he thought it imprudent to begin an attack before some more men were landed. He therefore cry'd to Brigadier Murray (whose boat was then near our shore) to order more men to land. On which the Brigadr. landed along with his Brigade Major (Maitland), Colonel Carleton, and Capt. Stobo, seemed dissatisfied with the slowness of the other two companys at landing, unfairly attributing the cause to shyness, when in reality it was owing to two boats running on the reef of rocks formerly mentioned. So soon as the boats floated, Capt. De Laune pushed in landing where Capt. Fraser's co. were drawn up, but as the different of time twixt Capt. Fraser's landing and Capt. Delaunne's were about 16 minutes, most of the former company were three feet deep in water, being tide of flood, which damaged part of their ammunition. Another great obstacle which disconcerted the Brigadr. that the boats in which the remaining part of the troops were embarked must row against tide in consideration of which the General thought proper to order a retreat to be beat ; the two companys drew off, reembarked in their respective boats without much confusion, but sustained part of the enemy's fire.

After drawing off from shore, the General ordered the killed and wounded on board a sloop who was exchanging some shot with one of the enemy's fleating batteries. As also the dry ammunition to be proportionally divided, and the whole to prepare for a second attack, in the same order as the former. We accordingly rowed in shore, but we found all the copse better lined than formerly, and from our boats could discover a considerable body on a road about 500 yards from thence, and those in the copse as formerly. The whole appeared formidable, as an officer on horseback went from one body to another, viz. that posted on the beach, the other on the road, and the one posted by the church aforesaid to deliver orders (as may be supposed). However, Major Dalling pursued the directions given him : when we came within gun-shot of the enemy, they gave us so heavy a fire of musketry that our landing was impracticable, besides, nor could our sailor's stand by their oars for some minutes. Upon seeing the boats wherein the regts. were embarked, pulled about, the soldiers seized the oars, backed water, and drew off from the fire. We learnt that upon the General's seeing these large bodys of the enemy in the village, he ordered the retreat to be beat, which we did not hear, being under the fire of the enemy. On this repulse, the whole of the troops re-embarked on board their respective ships. The following is an account of the killed and wounded of the three companys of Light Infantry : 10 officers wounded ; 36 privates wounded, and 26 killed.

N.B. Also 10 sailors killed and wounded belonging to the Sunderland man-of-war.

August 9th, 1759. Employed in the disposing and carrying for the wounded most of the day. At nine o'clock this night the Brigadr. ordered Lt. Crofton of the Rangers to land on the south shore in order to take a prisoner. He accordingly with 20 men landed, surprised a barn in which there were 9 Canadians, killed 4, and took 5 prisoners.

10th. This morning embarked on board our flat-bottomed boats, in order to land on the south shore, in the same order as the 8th inst. About half an hour after 7 o'clock rowed in and landed, after sustaining a small fire from the enemy, of whom we killed five, and took a captain of militia prisoner. Our loss consisting of one private killed, 6 wounded, and Lt. Sam Rutherford of Amherst's regt. wounded.

After we beat off the enemy, we took possession of an eminence where we encamped, strongly situated opposite to our ships, near village St. Nicholas, 21 miles from Point Levy camp.

11th. Remained in camp ; nothing done.

12th. Very rainy weather. This morning a schooner from below joined our fleet ; the m'r of reports that two catts with a regt. on board endeavoured to pass the town, but were obliged to put back by the brisk cannonading of the batterys.

13th. A detachment of 400 men under the command of Major Dalling marched to the eastward to reconoitre the country ; they were fired on by a small party of Canadians, who made the following execution, viz. Capt. Carden wounded, also 4 wounded of the Rangers. On which the General ordered all the houses east of our post (in the parish of St. Croix) to be sett on fire, and at the same time fixed a manifesto on the church door, declaring that if they should anoye any of our troops passing or repassing the communication, for the future, that no quarter will be given the inhabitants when taken, without exception or respect to person. The detachment took a great number of cattle ; no prisoners.

14th. This morning 7 marines straggled about 800 yards from the camp, who was taken by the enemy, part of whom they massacred and left on the beach in order to be discovered, in return of which cruelty the General marched with two battalions, viz. Amherst's and the 2nd Battln. Royal A., 3 miles east of our camp in the village of St. Nicholas, setting fire to all the houses belonging thereto. Neither prisoners or cattle brought in to camp.

Unknown. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Six

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
August 1st. 1759. The weather continues to be very hot ; little done ; posted in a picquetted orchard.

2nd. Weather as yesterday. By this day's orders it appears that the General is not very well satisfied with the manner the Grenadiers attacked, as they went on with too great precipitation, also before the troops from the eastward of Montmorency could form to support them. Advanced in so great a hurry that is was impossible to preserve silence or method, not pay proper regard to the directions given them by their commanding officers, which is the very essence of military discipline. We took possession of a redoubt and a 5 gun battery at the foot of the precipice, but was obliged to abandon it without nailing the cannon.

Some imputes this, as follows, to be the reason of the Grenadiers' mistake, viz. that the sailors who landed them huzzaed that the Grenadiers from Orleans and Montmorency had joined. And that a certain captain ordered his drummers to beat the march without the desire of the Commanding Officer, which occasioned the miscarriage of the day. A flag of truce from town with a very antick letter from the French governor relating the prisoners taken at Montmorency.

By intelligence from Admiral Holms, a large body of the enemy are above the town, and is supposed means to cross. This night posted as the former.

3rd. The weather continues hot ; little done ; remained at our post this night in order to march in the morning.

4th. Marched at two o'clock this morning from our cantonments to Village de Couleur where we arrived by break of day ; surrounded several houses, found no person. About 8 o'clock saw a few Canadians and Indians, but could not come up with them. Drove horses, cows, and sheep to camp. On our arrival in camp, was informed of a flag of truce from town with letters for the French prisoners, which is said were all returned unopened. Received orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march against to-morrow's evening with the 15th regt. and 200 Marines under the command of Brigadier-Gen. Murray.

5th. All this day under orders of marching. At twelve o'clock this night marched with the 15th regt. and 200 marines to Goram's post, where we remained from 10 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock evening of the 6th inst. On the beach waiting the return of flat-bottomed boats, which did not arrive for fear of being discovered, as our embarkation was to be made with the greatest secrecy ; when we thought we were liable to be discovered we drew off from the beach, and took position in some houses about a mile west of Goram's post.

6th Marched from last night's posts, and crossed the River Else Chemin with the 15th regt. and 200 marines ; about one hour thereafter, embarked on board the Sunderland man-of-war, and the remaining part of the troops distributed to the different vessels proportionate to the vessels' accomodation, where the whole remained all night.

7th. Remained on board the Sunderland man-of-war till three o'clock this evening, when Capt. Simon Fraser's co. of Light Infantry were ordered to be embarked on board the sloop Good Intent. A fine open country on both sides of the river, 18 leagues above or west of the town. At twelve o'clock this night were ordered to be ready to embark on board the flat-bottom boats ; counter-ordered at two o'clock in the morning of the 8th inst.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Five

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
July 25th, 1759. Arrived this morning on the lower settlements of the North side, the River en Chemin, Capt. Fraser's Co. having the van. Seized about 300, including men, women and children, 150 head of cattle, some horses, and several sheep. When we came near the above camp forage was forwarded with Capt. Delaune's Company, as also the prisoners.

Major Dalling marched to Capt. Goram's house, where the detachment took post till further orders.

26th. Marched from last night's post to our cantonments, where we were informed of Capt. Delaune;s sending last night a corporal and six men with orders to Major Dalling, who were attacked on the communications by twenty Canadians (as the corporal) said. One Rigby, our surgeon's mate, who accompanied the corporal's party was killed with 2 men, 3 taken prisoners, only one escaped with the corporal, who confirmed the above, as also that on returning the corporal killed one of the Canadians.

Three of the prisoners from Capt. Delanne's Co. of those taken and sent to camp, recommended to the particular care of the captain. The evening of the 24th curt. Colonel Fraser set out with 300 men of his regt. to take prisoners, and bring cattle ; as they were marching some miles, east of Beaumont, they were fired on by one man only (as is said) which wounded the Colonel in the thigh, and broke Capt. McPherson's arm.

After arriving in camp we learnt that the Colonels van guard was fired on before day, who, according to others, retired into the wood, and he stepping to some small eminence to give directions to a part of his detachment to move on in a manner formerly directed, his voice making it known to the enemy where the commanding officer stood, three of them directed their fire up that way, which wounded the Colonel and Capt. McPherson in the right thighs. 

27th. Remained in cantonments all day ; nothing done in camp. In the night the enemy sent down one fire raft containing one hundred stages, lined with combustibles (did no harm).

28th. A deserter from the enemy to the westward of Montmorency ; little intelligence.

29th. Extreme hot weather ; 13 companys under orders all day ; it was supposed they were to cross Montmorency Falls, and attack a redoubt ; nothing was done. Capt. Ross and Lt. Nairn of Colonel Fraser's Regt. fought a duel this morning, very much to the discredit to the former.

30th. MORNING INTELLIGENCE. A deserter from one of the grenadier cos. on the Island of Orleans going over to the enemy is the reason nothing was done yesterday.

30th. a landing was to be endeavoured the 29th, consisting of two rgts. from Point Levy, and 13 cos. grenadiers from orleans, under cover of the fire of two frigates running on shore at high water, which time of the two regts. landing, the troops on the north shore were to cross Montmorency Falls, ----- Webb's regt. to march along the south shore the length of Goram's and return in the evening to their former post. The reason of which designing to draw the attention to the quarter. Posted this night by the battery as usual.

31st. At 12 o'clock this day, two catts with 6-pounders (in place of the supposed frigates) ran on shore, at which time the troops embarked in floats and in boats ; the many motions made by them gave the enemy time to assemble there in force where an attack was most probable. The two catts and the battery to the eastward of Montmorency continued firing till about five o'clock evening, when the 13 cos. Grenadiers from Orleans and the 2 regts. from Point Levy landed on the beach at which time the Montmorency troops crossed below the Falls, it being low water. The Grenadiers formed, and marched up to attack the entrenchments but by the steepness of a hill directly above them it was found impracticable, sustained a heavy fire for some minutes without their firing a shot, being obliged to retire. Amherst's and the Highlanders covered their retreat, which was done in good order, and without confusion, carrying off the wounded. The troops to the eastward of Montmorency returned to their camp with Fraser's regt., the Grenadiers to Orleans, and Amherst's to Point Levy. As the ships could not be got off there was a necessity of burning them. Killed, 38 ; wounded, 62 ; missing 1.

Faints made. Brigadier Murray commanded Anstruther's regt. and a body of Light Infantry, with orders to move on as if intending to cross above the aforesaid Falls, and if possible to effect it ; and Colonel Burton with Webb's regt. marched along the southern shore in order to DRAW THE ATTENTION OF THE ENEMY their WAY.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Four

July 18th, 1759. This morning General Wolfe reconoitered the opposite or north shore above the town ; seems to think a landing practicable.

In the afternoon Major Dalling marched with two companies along the south shore three miles to the westward of our post, in order to look for places most convenient for the troops to ascend at the landing on the north shore. He found two or three.

On our return to our cantonments we were ordered to take a little rest, as we were to escort General Wolfe in the morning.

July 19th, 1759. At 10 o'clock last night the General came to our cantonments in order to see the shipping pass the town ; at 10 o'clock the Sunderland and Squirrell men-of-war with two transports passed the batterys ; 31 shot fired at them, none of which touched.

Matched to escort the General, who went on board the Sutherland in a whaleboat ; at 3 o'clock in the morning Captain Carden and Fraser's company with some rangers marched to a settlement about 7 miles up the river above the town, to endeavour to take prisoners. We crossed a river near it with not the proper precaution ; discovered two or three straggling fellows who got off ; it seemed by the fires in the houses they had been inhabited lately. Found a note on the door of a house begging that we should not set it on fire. Returned to our cantonments by 10 o'clock at night, and on our arrival marched with the General 4 miles back ; the same communication we came by, where we remained all night. About 11 o'clock the enemy sett up the Indian hoop, and fired small arms ; most probably occasioned to a small alarm.

20th. Last night the General went on board the Sunderland ; at eight o'clock this morning marched to our cantonments ; on our way way we took a Canadian and his boy about 12 years old prisoners ; one of our men fired at him, and not withstanding his seeing it impossible to escape, being surrounded by 100 men, he returned the fire, and killed the soldier a Highlander belonging to Capt. Fraser's company. It was with great difficulty his life was suffered from the fury of the men who were exasperated at the scoundrel's action. He seemed to know little excepting the haunts of the straggling inhabitants.

20th. This evening an intelligent deserter from the enemy confirmed that the 13th curt. 1500 men having crossed the river in order to attack our battery and post, but on landing a false alarm made them fire on each other ; two Canadians were killed, the Indians fled then, and the detachment returned without presuming to look at one of our sentinels.

21st. Rainy weather ; marched to escort Admiral Holmes to Capt. Goram's post, being 2 miles from our post. He greatly difficulted how to get on board the shipping as they lay 6 miles above Goram's.

Arrived the General from on board the Sunderland, who informed us he had ordered Colonel Carleton to land at Point au Tremble with Amherst's and Fraser's Grenadiers, and a small detachment of the 3rd B. of R. Americans, which order was put in execution at daybreak in the morning of the 22nd. They were opposed by some Canadians and Indians, who gave way soon. Fraser's Grenadiers pursued too far, killing two Indians, and obliging the remainder to fly, leaving everything behind. Major Prevost, Lu Mc Douwel, and one volunteer wounded, with 14 men killed.

22nd. Marched from Goram's post as an escort to the General ; on our return to the cantonments received orders of marching. At night the town much bombarded, set on fire, and burnt most of the night a good many shot and shell ; two ships, endeavouring to pass the batterys sustained most of the fire, was obliged to set back with contrary winds, without which they could pass.

The lady's taken yesterday returned this day ; Capt. Smith, Aide de Camp to Gen. Wolfe, not politely used by the French in town.

23rd. Remained in our cantonments all day under orders for marching ; detained for want of a guide. At 1 o'clock this night marched the whole detachment of Light Infantry, with 30 Rangers, under the command of Major Dalling. At the time of our departure to town set on fire, and burnt most of the night.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Three

July 11, 1759. Some cannonading from town.

The enemy has changed their encampments to prevent the annoyance of a battery erected on the opposite side of the Falls of Montmorency, by putting themselves under cover of a hill, which has rendered our battery useless. But notwithstanding it's to be hoped that our engineers will use their utmost efforts to reconoitre their situation, and erect on some advantageous ground another for their amusement.

Rafts begun this day for transporting men. They are almost the same as projected by the Chevalier Tolar'd, excepting some bad alterations made by ....Frizer of the Royal Americans, one of the many quacks we import from foreign services. Major Dalling's detachment marched from Point Levy to the battery (erecting where the General and Admiral formerly reconoitred).

At one o'clock in the morning of the 12th inst. was the last gun mounted. The battery consists of 5 13-in. mortars, and 6 32-pounders.

12th. This morning the marines took post in a redoubt above the battery.

Towards noon some boats discovered coming down the river and landing men, among whom was seen red coats. It's feared the enemy have made prisoners from General Amherst's army.

Major Dalling's detachment to the westward of the battery (posted).

About 10 o'clock this night opened the battery on the town, to where and from whence a great number of shot and shells were fired. None of us hurt.

13th. Nothing extraordinary. Posted this night to the right of the battery. Neither shot or shells from either sides.

14th. Good weather. Little done. Posted this night to the right of the battery. A few shot and shell fired from our battery, but none from town. Great cannonading to the east of Montmorency by the enemy's battery's

15th. Little done on this side. Fortifying the encampment to the eastward of Montmorency.

About 12 o'clock this night Capt. Goram of the Rangers found three whale-boats, which he lodged in a copse of wood, and it's thought he intends to surprise a schooner close by the town. 

16th. A very smart cannonading from town, which has been in fire most of the day. A new bomb-battery erecting to the right of the former.

This night three ships of war were to pass the town ; and after posting the men under proper cover for saving them from shot and shell we were at length disappointed : the reason not known.

At 12 o'clock this night, Capt. Goram set out in order to surprise the schooner aforesaid, but after padling one hour he returned to Major Dalling's post saying he could not find it, which was pretty extraordinary as the schooner still remained in the same creek as formerly, and the distance from the shore could not exceed half a mile.

17th. The reasons of the ships not passing this town last night is imputed to want of wind, which is just possible as there was a good breeze on shore.

5 men killed and three scalped by the enemy to eastward of Montmorency. Captain Coseman of the ----- regt. dangerously wounded, he being fired on when placing some sentinels at an advanced post.

A soldier of Capt. Carden's company of Light Infantry deserted to the enemy, after killing his comrade.

A deserter from the enemy informs that they intend to attack our battery at Point Levy, also Colonel Burton's post ; saying that the 13th inst. 1600 men crossed the river on that intention, but returned the 14th on pretence of being discovered.

The weather continues good. Little doing. Posted by the battery as usual ; neither shot or shell during the night by either sides.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, July 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Two

July 4, 1759. This morning a flag of truce sent into town. In the afternoon another sent from town ; the business not known ; excessive rain and thunder, succeeding by lightning. The Light Infantry under orders of marching all this day.

5th. Colonel Burton, with the 48th regiment and Major Dalling's Light Infantry, took post opposite the south side of the town. The General and Admiral (Saunders) reconoitered the post, and it's expected a bomb-battery will be erected there.

6th. This morning one of Admiral Saunder's barges was taken by some canoes with armed men in them. The sailors got so near on shore that they leaped into the water and escaped, excepting one wounded man who was taken.

Remained under arms where posted the evening of the 5th till four o'clock this evening, when we marched to the camp at Point Levy.

At twelve o'clock this night marched to -------; lay in ambush for a party of Arcadians and Miomac Indians.

7th. Lay in a most disagreeable swamp inclosed with wood, where we discovered nothing ; the men were not so silent and attentive as was wished. At 10 o'clock at night marched from here, examining all the houses as we went along, and halted at the church of Beaumont, where the men was lodged. Consisted of 300, the party, 12 miles from camp at Point Levy.

8th. Lay in Beaumont Church most of this day. At noon discovered men walking at the border of the woods. Several parties sent out to endeavour to make prisoners. None taken. The parties brought in several sheep, hogs, fowls, &c., with a great quantity of household furniture and wearing apparel, at which conduct Major Dalling seem'd greatly offended. All the household furniture and wearing apparel deposited in the church of Beaumont, with a manifesto fixed on the church door.

9th. Marched from Beaumont to Point Levy. On our arrival was informed that General Wolfe the night before had landed on the north side of the River St. Lawrence, and to the eastward of Montmorency Falls with the Grenadiers Light Infantry, and most of the 2nd and 3rd brigades. The regiments at Point Levy struck their tents, and remained in the woods for 12 hours, when they encamped on their old ground, which consequently made the enemy imagine the whole were on the north shore, and gave time to General Wolfe to take post and fortify his camp.

10th. A soldier of the 48th regiment deserted to the enemy from his post.

Major Dalling, with two companies of his detachment, marched to reinforce Colonel Burton. Towards evening great thunder, lightning, and rain. Little done.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, July 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week One





JULY 26TH 1759


Prefatory note: The name of the author of this journal is not known, but it is supposed to have been an officer, or non-commissioned officer in "Fraser's Highlanders." The original manuscript is property of Mr. Galloway, of Inverness. In comparing the dates of the various events recorded, with those given by other writers of the period, it is perceived the original author is generally accurate. There are also many particulars given of the last days of the Siege, which are of exceptional value.

The Siege of Quebec

June 27, 1759. This morning the greatest part of the army landed on the Island of Orleans. Afternoon of this day it blew excessively hard, the consequence of which occasioned a great many boats sunk and staved, particularly several transports driving from their anchors and running on shore.

28th. The remaining part of the army landed, at which a sudden gale of wind arised, which endangered the troops debarking, as also damaging the ship greatly. More boats lost.

29th. This morning about 1 o'clock the enemy, by favour of a N.W. wind and ebb of tide, sent down several fire ships and rafts with an intention to destroy the fleets : but the activity of the sailors with their boats and grapplings prevented any bad consequence attending thereto.

Major Dalling's detachment of Light Infantry under arms all night occasioned to an alarm given by Capt. ------- of Kennedy's regiment leaving his post, and coming into camp at an unseasonable hour.

The Louisbourg Grenadiers, Major Dalling's Light Infantry, and two companies of Rangers took post on the west end of the Island of Orleans, discovered four separate encampments of the enemy (north side of the river), twixt the Falls of Montmorency and the town, being 10 miles distance, strongly fortified, being the general rendez-vous called Beauport where the enemy were constantly employed in rendering defensive from the first appearance of our fleet in the River St. Lawrence.

This evening 6 men wounded on the west end of the Island of Orleans, belonging to Amherst's and Kennedy's regiments.

30th. Amherst's, Kennedy's, Webb's, and Fraser's regiments decamped from the west end of the Island of Orleans, embarked on board flat-bottomed boats, crossed the river St. Lawrence, and landed on the south side. Had some picquering with the enemy's Irregulars, of which they killed four, took THREE prisoners, and beat the remainder off from a post they occupied opposite to Cape Diamond ; after which the army took post at Point Levy, and remained quiet all night without the least molestation.

This morning two grenadiers of Whitemore's regiment were scalped, and most cruelly mangled on the east end of the Island of Orleans by three lurking Indians, who, after the murder, made their escape in their canoes to the north shore occupied by the enemy.

July 1st. Bragg's, Lasscell's, and Anstruther's regiments, under the command of Brigadier Townshend, marched from their former camp on the west end to the east point of the Island of Orleans. And the Light Infantry from thence to Point Levy on our arrival.... was informed that the 4 regiments posted here suffered by a cannonading from floating batteries or boats mounting 6 and 9-pounders. Amherst had 4 killed and wounded, and Fraser's 12 men.

2nd. A large detachment from the four regiments under the command of Brigadier-General Moncton, flanked by the Light Infantry, escorted General Wolfe, who went a reconoitering two miles to the west-ward of the camp at Point Levy. Discovered a few Canadians and Indians who fired on us from behind a bush. NONE HURT. 

3rd. Very rainy weather ; nothing done ; all quiet.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.