Friday, February 15, 2019

Monthly Return of Sep. 24, 1759

The monthly Army Returns reported on the strength of each regiment, including total numbers of men present, absent, sick, or on extra daily duty, as well as giving a report of officers and some categories of enlisted men. They were a very useful and effective planning tool in eighteenth-century combat operations and are still in practical use throughout today's armed forces.

Ten soldiers of the 78th Regiment were admitted to Royal Chelsea Hospital on July 20, 1759, nine of which are listed as having sustained injuries at Louisbourg. James Williamson; Roderick Mcniel; William Fraser Callum; James Cummings; John Gillis; William Cunnison; Alexander McTavish; Robert Thompson; John Fraser, John Macallum.


MONTHLY RETURN OF HIS MAJESTY’S FORCES IN THE RIVER ST. LAWRENCE, UNDER THE COMMAND OF BRIGR. GENL. ROBERT MONCKTON, SEPTR. 24TH 1759.
78TH REGIMENT: COLONEL FRASER’S
OFFICERS PRESENT
COMMISSION
Colonels
Lt. Colonels
Majors
Captains
Lieutenants
Ensigns
1


11
25
13
OFFICERS ABSENT
Major Clephane
Left sick at New York
Major Campbell
Never joyn’d His Majesty’s
Lieut. McTavish
Left with the sick at Louisbourg
NAMES OF VACANT OFFICERS
Capt. Ross
Killed Sepr. 13th
Lieut. Roderick McNeil
Killed Sepr. 13th
Lieut. Alexr. McDonell
Killed Sepr. 13th
STAFF
Chaplains
Adjutants
Qr. Masters
Surgeons
Mates

1
1
1
1
2

EFFECTIVES
RANK & FILE
Fit for Duty
Sick/Present
Sick/Hospital
Absent sick & on duty
Recruiting
On Furlow
744
245
241
66


TOTAL: 1296
WANTING TO COMPLEAT
Serjeants
Drummers
Rank & File





149



SINCE LAST RETURN
Recruited
Dead
Discharged
Deserted
Killed
Wounded

8
1

27
137
JOYN’D
INVALIDS
Serjeants
Drummers
Rank & File
Recommended to Chelsea and kept on Regiments pay
4
2
131
11
PRISONERS OR MISSING
---

Source:
Casgrain, P.-B. A few remarks on "The siege of Quebec" and the battle of the Plains of Abraham by A. Doughty in collaboration with G.W. Parmeles, and on The probable site of the battle of the Plains of Abraham, by A. Doughty. App. III, J. Hope, 1903. 

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019.

Friday, February 1, 2019

Major Abercrombie's Letter to Earl of Loudoun, Sep. 1763

Transcription of a letter giving details of military affairs in America at the end of the French and Indian war, sent to Earl of Loudoun as former commander in America. Parson Robert Macpherson returned home in September [prior to the mutiny at Quebec], having obtained leave from General Murray, while the main body of the 78th Regiment departed Quebec in early October, arriving at Glasgow in December 1763.


Quebec Sepr. The 15th 1763
My Lord

I have nothing worth giving your Lordship the trouble of a letter however I could not let slip this opportunity of congratulating you on your return from Portugal, for by what I have heard of the few Portuguese troops & the handful of English your Lordship had few laurele could have been reapt.

The Indian War is almost become general in this Country, all the upper posts have been cut off except Detroit, your Lordship will readily excuse me coppying the New York Gazette, besides the bearer Mr McPherson Chaplain to the 78th can acquaint you with what we know, this gentleman is a most deserving Sensible man, & the best Chaplain I ever knew, I hope your Lordship will therefore be pleased to honor him with your countenance.

The 47th & 78th have been drafted to compleat the 15th, 27th, 2d Bn. Royal America, those three Regts remain in this govt. & trois rivieres – the 28th at Montreal who were completed from the 4th Battn. Rl. Americans & the 44th the last Regt. garrisons Crown Point & fort Levi – alias fort Wm. Augustus.

Nothing is yet setled in Canada either in respect to governor or governments all Murray expects to remain & will be much dissapointed should it happen otherwise.

Your friend Robertson has gone to Pensacola & Louisana to settle the posts there, I hope it will be made worth his while, for it is a most dissagreable jaunt.

I intended to have gone home with the remains of the Regt. but Sir Jeffery has desired I would go by New York, I shall therefore set out for thence in a few days, & I don’t think it improbable but I may be sent a Scouting if theres the least probability of a step I shall accept with pleasure, but without that I will not be fond of Indian hunting.

My best respects to Miss Kitty, & I have the honor to be,
Your Lordship
Much obliged & most
Humble Servant
James Abercrombie ~ 

To the Earl of Loudoun

Source:
Abercrombie, James. "Letter addressed to John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun, 15 Sept. 1763." John Campbell, Loudoun papers concerning the siege and fall of Quebec, 1756-1784. Houghton Library, Harvard College Library, cat. no. 45M-113F.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019. 

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Instructions for Draughting of Foot Guards, Jan. 1757

Draughting Foot Guards for the 78th Regiment of Foot, 1757
During the early recruitment of soldiers for both the newly established Highland Battalions [Colonel Montgomery's and Colonel Fraser's Regiments], leadership requested senior non-commissioned officers [serjeants and corporals] from those that were already established. Veteran soldiers were highly sought after for their ability to not only successfully train the new recruits, but it was also required they could speak the Scottish Gaelic Highland language, to be able to pass down orders from the senior officers. A transcription of Lord Barrington's letter to the field commanders addressing these requirements is as follows.

War Office 25 Janry 1757

Sir
          The King having been pleased to direct two Highland Battalions to be forthwith raised to serve in North America and Commanded by Lieut. Col. Montgomery and Lieut. Col. Fraser and it being requested by the said Lieut. Colonels that the Serjeants and Corporals for the said Battalions should be taken from Corps, where Men shall be found qualified for such Non Commiss Officers I am therefore to acquaint you it is His Majesty's Pleasure that you will cause Twenty five men to be draughted from the Regiments of Foot Guards under your Command who can speak the Highland Language Ten of whom are to be turned over to Lieut Col. Montgomery's Battalion and the remaining fifteen to Lieut. Col. Fraser's Battalion which Men are to be Draughted with their own consent and approved of by the said Lieut. Col.s of Officers appointed for that Service in order to their being Sergts. or Corporals as the said Lieut Colonels shall think proper For each of whom the sum of Five pounds is to be paid by the said Battalions receiving them, to your Regt., but care is to be taken that none above the degree of a Corporal is to be draughted.  I am
                                                               Sir     &c.
                                                                                          Barrington
Field Officer in Staff waiting
for the three Regts. of Foot Guards

                                    Guards . . . . 10 . . . . 15 . . . . 25

Like letters of the same date to the following Colonels or Officers Commanding their respective Regiments.

Earl of Homes
Montgomery's:  6
Frasers:  4
Total:  10

Genl. Anstruther's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  5
Total:  9

Genl. Holmes's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  -
Total:  4

Leighton's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  6
Total:  10

Lord Robert Manners's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  -
Total:  4

Lambton's
Montgomery's:  2
Fraser's:  6
Total:  8

Lord Charles Manners's
Montgomery's:  6
Fraser's:  -
Total:  6

Lord Loudouns
Montgomery's:  -
Fraser's:  4
Total:  4

Total:
Montgomery's:  40
Fraser's:  40

Source:
War Office Records: Out Letters: Secretary at War. General Letters, Dec. 1756 - Apr. 1757. LAC, W.O. 4, vol. 53 (Selections), pp. 102-3.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019.

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Clothing for the Highland Regiments, 1757

The official tartan worn by the 78th Foot remains a mystery; however, many historians believe it the Black Watch plaid, same as the 42d FootIt is suspected this was also the tartan worn by Colonel Montgomery's 77th Foot, and researchers conclude any striking changes by Colonel Fraser would have probably been noted.

Colonel Fraser's army agent, George Ross, was most likely responsible for procuring uniforms for the 78th Foot [then, the Second Highland Battalion] on the colonel's behalf. Typically, the agent was responsible for handling the  administrative and financial matters, including ordering uniforms through a hired army clothier, who would employ the various trades [weavers, tailors, cordwainers, lace and button makers, etc.] to fulfill contracts and ship goods. As there were numerous army clothiers supplying the regiments, identifying the specific clothier used might assist in locating the exact cloth worn by the regiment. Two known army clothiers during the war were James Mann [St. Martin in the Fields], and Richard Lowe [King St., Covent Garden], both of Westminster, UK. Coincidentally, Ross also maintained an office in that city on Conduit Street.

Early Scottish Manufacturing
The British Linen Company was established in Edinburgh by royal charter in 1746. The Company was empowered to 'carry on the Linen Manufactory in all its branches' and was granted limited liability. The word 'British' in its title was an attempt to deflect the suspicion aroused by all things Scottish, after the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. The Company's key promoters were the 3rd Duke of Argyll; Lord Milton; the Earl of Panmure; and George Middleton, a London banker.

As the production of Scottish manufacturing grew slowly in the 1730s, the commercial output of linen doubled from an annual average of 3.5 million yards in 1728-32 to 7.8 million yards by 1748-52. The British Linen Company's prospects brightened in the mid-1750s as war promised to disrupt German competition, and internal correspondence indicates an eagerness to secure clothing contracts with Agent George Ross, as he represented a number of British regiments at the time. 

10 April 1755
To William Tod, London
"My Lord Milton desires you would wait on Mr. George Ross who is agent for the Earl of Home's and sundry other regiments and Make Lord Milton's compliments to him and let him know that if proper samples were fixed upon 'tis believed this Company could supply most of the regiments [at least in time] with their shirting linens and that if Mr. Ross thought it fit a trial might be made of supplying Lord Home's regiment which is now in Scotland & if that pleased others might be contracted for hereafter. And likewise the Company could engage to supply them with their linen for splatterdashes."

Mr. Tod was a sales agent for the British Linen Company operating from an office in London. Although it is unclear if he was successful signing George Ross to contract for clothing any of his regiments, including the 78th Foot, the amount of cloth needed to outfit a large army in such a short period of time [over 10 miles of material] would have definitely required the services of a company with considerable output capabilities. 

Clothing for a Highland Regiment
From the document titled "A State of Clothing for a Highland Regiment at first raising, 1757.
For each man, 1st year:
- 1 Coat
- 1 Waistcoat
- 1 Plaid
- 1 Bonnet
- 2 Shirts
- 2 Stocks
- 2 Pairs shoes
- 4 Pairs hose

For each man, 2d year:
- 1 Coat
- 1 Bonnet
- 1 Shirt
- 1 Stock
- 2 Pairs shoes
- 2 Pair hose

N.B. The plaid to last two years, the Shoes & hose to be deliver'd half yearly, Viz, one pair of Shoes & two pairs hose in June, and one pair Shoes wth. the other two pairs hose in December. The old Coat makes the vestcoat after the first cloathing.

From the document titled "Regulation of Cloathing for a Highland Regt. of Foot, c. 1757.
For a Serjeant:
- A Plaid of good tartan Cloth to be delivered once in two years at 1s/6d p. yard
- A Short Coat of Red Cloth every year
- A Waistcoat made out of the coat of preceding year
- A Bonnet every year at 1/2 a piece
- A good Shirt and Stock once a year
- A Pair of Short Hose every 3 Months at 1/5 p. pc
- A Pair of Shoes at 3/4 every 6 Months or money

For a Drummer:
- A Plaid of good Tartan Cloth once in two years containing 12 yards at 1s /p yard
- A Short Coat of good Cloth every year
- A Waistcoat made out of the Coat of the preceding yr
- A Bonnet every Year at 9d apiece
- A good Shirt and Stock once a year
- A pair of Short Hose every 3 Months ¾ yd. each at 10d p yard
- A pair of Shoes every 6 Months
- A belt and Sling once a year if wanted

For a private Soldr: as a Drummer:
Memoranda for Coll. Montgomery
- One of the Selvages to be Twiled
- Prices to be like Lord John Murray's
- Commission to Scott 2½ p cent
- Regimental buckles are got
- Regimental Garters to be bought at Glasgow
- Belts for Kelting Men provide
- Plaids, Bonnets, and Hose provided for the officers and charged to Paymaster

42d Foot
Lieutenant John Robertson, 42d Foot, gazetted 21 July 1758, paid James Scott, merchant in Edinburgh, for the following goods prior to his departure to the West Indies. Scott operated a shoppe in the Canongate District near St. John's Cross to the foot of St. Mary's Wynd. Dated 23 August 1758. [NAS, GD132/395].

- 4 yards scarlet and white tartan [presumably for the diamond pattern leg hose]
¾ yards superfine scarlet cloth
- 4 yards tristian
- 4½ yards tartan for phealbeg
- 2 yards broad linen for drawers
- Bonet 
- Ribbons, cockade
- Black feathers
- 1 pair broad rib'd silk hose

Note: The diamond pattern leg hose was usually a red and white check which was called cath dath (pr: kaa dah) - war pattern.

Additionally, the lieutenant discharged an account to Jean Murray, merchant in Blair [Atholl], for tartan, ribbons for cockades, etc. Dated 27 March 1759. [NAS, GD132/397].

July 30, 1758
- 4 yd fine Tartan
- 2 yd best red & white tartan
- 3 yd garters
- 3½ fine tartan
- 2 yd Ribban for Cockads
- 3 oz thread

Aug 2.
- 11 yd tartan
- 4 yd Ribban for Cockads
- 1oz thread
- 3½ yd tartan
- 1 oz thread
- 4 yd fine tartan
- 9 yd tartan
- 4 yd fine Ditto
- 8 yd Ribban
- 1oz thread
- 1 yd fine red & white tartan
- 6 yd tartan
- 2½ Broad black Ribban
- 3 yd fine garter
- 19 yd Ribban for Cockads
- 2¼ fine tartan red & white
- 3 yds Coarse Ditto
- 5½ of Linnen
¼ of Cambrick
- 2 oz thread
- 2 quare post paper
½ Pound of Candy Bread
- 6 yd Ribban

Sep. 6th.
- 3½ yds tartan
¼ p gun powder
- 15 yd Ribban
- 4 yds fine tartan
- 4 yd Ditto
- 3 yd Broad black Ribban
- 2 yd Ditto
½ gun powder
- 2¼ Cambrick
- 3 yds Broad black Ribban
- 3 yds Red Ribban
- 6 yds gartar

Oct. 2.
- 3 yds fine Cambrick
¾ tartan red & white
- 6 yds red & bleu [?] Ribban
- 4½ best black Ribban
- ? Pound Rasons & Almonds

Blair, March 27, 1759
Bill for £11. 2. 0½
Recived the above in full of all Demands Preseding this Debt
[signed] Jean Murray

77th Foot
Alexander Grant, 77th Foot, had an account due with Peter Leith for his military uniform. Dated 24 January 1757. [NAS, GD248/83/3]. Leith may be the same man recorded as journeyman tailor in Edinburgh's South West Parish, Oct. 1754.

Sources:
Calcraft, John. "Regulation of Cloathing for a Highland Regt. of Foot, c. 1757." James Grant of Ballindalloch papers, 1740-1819, Library of Congress.

"A State of Clothing for a Highland Regiment at first rising, 1757." James Grant of Ballindalloch papers, 1740-1819, Library of Congress.

“British Linen Bank.” Lloyds Banking Group. www.lloydsbankinggroup.com/Our-Group/our-heritage/our-history/bank-of-scotland/british-linen-bank/. Accessed 10 January 2019.

Richards, Frederick B. The Black Watch at Ticonderoga. Fort Ticonderoga Museum Library, 1920. Lt. John Robertson to the West Indies.

Durie, Alastair J. The British Linen Company, 1745-1775. Scottish History Society, 1996. Internal company letter written to William Tod, 10 April 1755.

“Ancient Highland Dress.” Ancient Highland Dress: The Highlander Leg Hose | Scottish Tartans Authority, www.tartansauthority.com/highland-dress/ancient/. Accessed 10 January 2019.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019. 

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

Payroll Account of Corporal James Smith, 1758

Corporal James Smith, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758
Much like today accounting books were used in the eighteenth century for documenting military pay and other related expenses accrued over periods of time. The payroll account of Corporal James Smith, 78th Regiment, covers the period of July 5, 1757, through April 24, 1758. 

Note: Category headers and bracketed script have been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document. Additionally, it would not be uncommon to discover accounting errors as these were gentlemen who created inaccuracies the same as you and I.

Income

To 9 Weeks Pay & arrears from y'e. 5th July to y'e. 5th Sept'r.
     £: 2. 0. 10½
To 5 Weeks arrears of Pay Due from y'e. 5th Sept'r. to 10th Oct'r.
     £: 0. 8. 1½
To 3 Weeks arrears @ 5p week
     
To 6 Weeks Pay & arrears Due from y'e. 17th Oct'r. to y'e. 28th Nov'r. 1757
     £: 1. 7. 3
To 21 Weeks arrears of Pay from y'e. 28th Nov'r. 1757 to y'e. 24th Apr'l. 1758
     £: 1. 14 . 1½

[Total]  £: 5. 10. 4½

Expenses

To 1 Pair Shoes & 1 Nap Sack
     £: 0. 6. 6
To 1 Haversacks & 1 Cocade
     £: 0. 1. 8
To 1 Pair Garters & 1 Sett buckles
     £: 0. 1. 4
To 1 Kilt & 1 Small belt
     £: 0. 1. 4
To 1 Turn Key Screw brush & wire
     £: 0. 0. 9
To Provisions at Glasgow
     £: 0. 4. 8
To Spruce Beer at Halifax
     £: 0. 2. 8
To 2 Cheq'd. Shirts
     £: 0. 7. 0
To 10 Months Stoppages for y'e. Payment Serjt. @ 1p month
     £: 0. 0. 10
To 7 Months D'o. for y'e. Barber @ 2p D’o.
     £: 0. 1. 2
To y'e. Proportion of a Cook's Frock
£: 0. 0. 8
To Cash given you at Fairf'd. & Boston
     £: 0. 18. 8

  [Total]  £: 2. 7. 3

 [Income minus Expenses equals Cash Paid]

To Cash Paid as Bala'ce of Above
       £: 3. 3. 1½

[Total]  £: 5. 10. 4½

Halifax 11th May 1758 Rec'd. y'e. above Bala'ce. in full of my Pay & arrears of Pay from y'e. Date of my Attestation to y'e. 24th Apr. last as witness of my hand.     [signed]  James Smith

Source:
Major James Clephane, "Payroll account of Corporal James Smith, 1758." Military Account Book at Halifax. NAS GD125-34-5, pp. 16-17.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019.  

Monday, December 17, 2018

Draught Soldiers to the 27th Regiment

27th Regiment of Foot muster rolls, 1763
In the summer of 1763, having received King George's Instructions regarding the reduction of the British armies in North America, the acting generals put in motion their plan for augmenting the three regiments that would remain guarding Quebec. It was decided the 15th, 27th, and 2d Battalion, 60th Royal American Regiment would be assigned this task.

An analysis of the official Subsistence Rolls of the 78th Regiment reveals approximately 358 soldiers remained in North America for this duty; some were volunteers, others were called upon because of the time remaining on their current enlistment contracts.

At the conclusion of the war, the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment experienced a significant reduction in the staffing of soldiers. And to maintain adequate troops levels required for guarding Quebec, subsequent muster rolls include augments from the 47th and 78th Foot, each providing men to replenish the regiment.

By September 1765, the regiment was distributed as follows: Four companies in the town of Quebec, three companies to Trois Rivieres, and two to Montreal, Colonel Massey being appointed to command the district.

In August 1767, the regiment embarked on board the transports for Europe, September 29th landed at Cork, Ireland, and the next day proceeded to Dublin. In the following year, the regiment was quartered at Limerick, returning to Dublin in 1769, where it remained until 1774 when it returned to Limerick.

It is not known how many 78th veterans from this group remained in North America.

Draughts of the 78th Regiment
The following 55 soldiers, recorded as veterans of the 78th Foot, are identified as having joined the 27th Foot on 25 August 1763. This muster is for 183 days ending 24 October 1763, the earliest available rolls after 1 September 1763, the date by which most of Colonel Fraser's men had transferred.

Lieutenant-Colonel Massey's Company
Reporting at St. Peters on South River, 24 October 1763
1. Private Andrew Anderson
2. Private John Cameron
3. Private Robert Keith
4. Private Loughlin Mitchal
5. Private Daniel McIntosh
6. Private John McIntosh
7. Private William McKinzie
8. Private James Taveish

Major John Maunsell's Company
Reporting at St. Peters on South River, 24 October 1763
9. Private Allexr. Faquher
10. Private Keneth McLean
11. Private Angush McDonold

Captain James Holmes' Company
Reporting at Trois Rivieres, 29 October 1763
12. Private Malkam Fergison
13. Private John Kennady
14. Private Laughlin McGuire

Captain John Campbell's Company
Reporting at St. Francois, 2 November 1763
15. Private Bryan Cairy
16. Private Donald Camaron
17. Private Evan Camaron
18. Private Collin Campbell
19. Private John Campbell
20. Private John Fraser
21. Private Jeremiah Fraser
22. Private Allexander Fraser
23. Private John Hutcheson
24. Private William McGilveroy
25. Private John McDonald, Senr.
26. Private Donald McPhii
27. Private Christopher McKinzey
28. Private John McDonald, Junr.
29. Private Evan McBean
30. Private Evan McMullan
31. Private Donald McDonald
32. Private John McGibbans
33. Private Robert McKinn
34. Private Allexander Murray
35. Private Robert Pellypren [Bellypren?]
36. Private John Summers

Captain Apollos Morris' Company
Reporting at Point au Tremble, 25 October 1763
37. Private Dennis Carney
38. Private Duncan Campbell
39. Private James Filk
40. Private Hugh Grimes
41. Private John McGinnis
42. Private Bryan Murphy
43. Private William Morrow
44. Private Peter McIntire
45. Private William Noble

Captain Henry Pringle's Company
Reporting at De Chambo, 27 October 1763
46. Private Jno. Duff
47. Private Alexr. Fletcher
48. Private Danl. Frazer
49. Private Jno. Reed

Captain Philip Skene's Company
Reporting at St. Anns, 28 October 1763
50. Private Alexander Hackny
51. Private John Muster'd
52. Private Robert McFarling
53. Private Archibold Robinson

Captain William Stewart's Company
Reporting at Trois Rivieres, 29 October 1763
54. Private William Hearly
55. Private George Strachan

Notes:
2. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
4. Listed as Lachlin Mitchell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
5. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
6. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
7. Recorded as 78th veteran, and appears on a 1765 land grant submitted by veterans, but not listed on any known rosters for the 78th Regiment.
8. Listed as Tavish on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
9. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
10. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
11. Probably Angus McDonell, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
12. Listed as Malcolm Ferguson on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
13. Listed as Kennedy on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
14. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
15. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767; there recorded as Keary.
16. Listed as Cameron on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
17. Listed as Cameron on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
21. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767.
22. Listed as Alexander on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
23. Listed as Hutchinson on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 1st Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
24. Listed as McGillivrae on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
25. Listed as McDonell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Father to soldier #28.
26. Listed as McPhie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
27. Listed as McKenzie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
28. Listed as McDonell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Son to soldier #25.
30. Listed as McMillan on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
32. Listed as Gibbons on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767; there recorded as McGibbons.
34. Listed as Alexander on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
35. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
36. Listed as Summer on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
37. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Name appears elsewhere as a veteran of the 47th Foot. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767.
39. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
40. Possibly Hugh Graham, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
41. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
42. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 29th Foot by 9 October 1767.
43. Possibly William Moore or More, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767; there recorded as Mourow.
44. Listed as McIntyre on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
47. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
46. Listed as Duffie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
48. Recorded as 78th veteran [possibly Donald Fraser], but unable to properly verify. See forenames explanation below.
49. Listed as Ried on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
50. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 1st Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
51. Recorded as "away on command." Listed as Mustard on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
52. Recorded as "away on command." Listed as McFarlane on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
53. Recorded as "away on command."
54. Listed as Harley on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.

Interchangeable names
The following names were most likely used interchangeably:

Forenames
- Daniel & Donald are sometimes, but not always, interchangeable in Scotland, because Domhnall, the Gaelic version of Donald, may be Anglicised as Daniel.

Surnames
- Graham/Grimes
- McDonald/McDonell

Sources:
War Office Records. 27th Foot, 1st Battalion. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists, 1759-1777. TNA, W.O. 12/4328.

War Office Records: Muster Books and Paylists: General, 47th Regiment, 1760-1763. LAC, W.O. 12/5871, Microfilm C-9202.

War Office Records: Return of Volunteers from the Inniskilling Regiment of Foot, given to the following Regiments. New York, 9 October 1767. In Letters, Military Despatches, Gen. Gage, 1767-1769, W.O. 1, vol. 8. LAC.

Trimble, William Copeland. The Historical Record of the 27th Inniskilling Regiment: from the Period of Its Institution as a Volunteer Corps till the Present Time. Clowes, 1876.

National Battlefields Commission, "Database of 1759-1760: Soldiers on the Plains of Abraham." Web. http://www.ccbn-nbc.gc.ca/en/history-heritage/battles-1759-1760/soldiers/. Accessed 17 December 2018.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

Donald Whyte, "Scottish Forenames." Details of a the forename Daniel. Web.
http://www.whatsinaname.net/male-names/Daniel.html. Accessed 17 December 2018.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.