Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Instructions for Draughting of Foot Guards, Jan. 1757

Draughting Foot Guards for the 78th Regiment of Foot, 1757
During the early recruitment of soldiers for both the newly established Highland Battalions [Colonel Montgomery's and Colonel Fraser's Regiments], leadership requested senior non-commissioned officers [serjeants and corporals] from those that were already established. Veteran soldiers were highly sought after for their ability to not only successfully train the new recruits, but it was also required they could speak the Scottish Gaelic Highland language, to be able to pass down orders from the senior officers.

A transcription of Lord Barrington's letter to the field commanders addressing these requirements is as follows.

War Office 25 Janry 1757

Sir
          The King having been pleased to direct two Highland Battalions to be forthwith raised to serve in North America and Commanded by Lieut. Col. Montgomery and Lieut. Col. Fraser and it being requested by the said Lieut. Colonels that the Serjeants and Corporals for the said Battalions should be taken from Corps, where Men shall be found qualified for such Non Commiss Officers I am therefore to acquaint you it is His Majesty's Pleasure that you will cause Twenty five men to be draughted from the Regiments of Foot Guards under your Command who can speak the Highland Language Ten of whom are to be turned over to Lieut Col. Montgomery's Battalion and the remaining fifteen to Lieut. Col. Fraser's Battalion which Men are to be Draughted with their own consent and approved of by the said Lieut. Col.s of Officers appointed for that Service in order to their being Sergts. or Corporals as the said Lieut Colonels shall think proper For each of whom the sum of Five pounds is to be paid by the said Battalions receiving them, to your Regt., but care is to be taken that none above the degree of a Corporal is to be draughted.  I am
                                                               Sir     &c.
                                                                                          Barrington
Field Officer in Staff waiting
for the three Regts. of Foot Guards

                                    Guards . . . . 10 . . . . 15 . . . . 25

Like letters of the same date to the following Colonels or Officers Commanding their respective Regiments.

Earl of Homes
Montgomery's:  6
Frasers:  4
Total:  10

Genl. Anstruther's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  5
Total:  9

Genl. Holmes's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  -
Total:  4

Leighton's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  6
Total:  10

Lord Robert Manners's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  -
Total:  4

Lambton's
Montgomery's:  2
Fraser's:  6
Total:  8

Lord Charles Manners's
Montgomery's:  6
Fraser's:  -
Total:  6

Lord Loudouns
Montgomery's:  -
Fraser's:  4
Total:  4

Total:
Montgomery's:  40
Fraser's:  40

Source:
War Office Records: Out Letters: Secretary at War. General Letters, Dec. 1756 - Apr. 1757. LAC, W.O. 4, vol. 53 (Selections), pp. 102-3.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019.

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Clothing for the Highland Regiments, 1757

The official tartan worn by the 78th Foot remains a mystery; however, many historians believe it the Black Watch plaid, same as the 42d FootIt is suspected this was also the tartan worn by Colonel Montgomery's 77th Foot, and researchers conclude any striking changes by Colonel Fraser would have probably been noted.

Colonel Fraser's army agent, George Ross, was most likely responsible for procuring uniforms for the 78th Foot [then, the Second Highland Battalion] on the colonel's behalf. Typically, the agent was responsible for handling the  administrative and financial matters, including ordering uniforms through a hired army clothier, who would employ the various trades [weavers, tailors, cordwainers, lace and button makers, etc.] to fulfill contracts and ship goods. As there were numerous army clothiers supplying the regiments, identifying the specific clothier used might assist in locating the exact cloth worn by the regiment. Two known army clothiers during the war were James Mann [St. Martin in the Fields], and Richard Lowe [King St., Covent Garden], both of Westminster, UK. Coincidentally, Ross also maintained an office in that city on Conduit Street.

Early Scottish Manufacturing
The British Linen Company was established in Edinburgh by royal charter in 1746. The Company was empowered to 'carry on the Linen Manufactory in all its branches' and was granted limited liability. The word 'British' in its title was an attempt to deflect the suspicion aroused by all things Scottish, after the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. The Company's key promoters were the 3rd Duke of Argyll; Lord Milton; the Earl of Panmure; and George Middleton, a London banker.

As the production of Scottish manufacturing grew slowly in the 1730s, the commercial output of linen doubled from an annual average of 3.5 million yards in 1728-32 to 7.8 million yards by 1748-52. The British Linen Company's prospects brightened in the mid-1750s as war promised to disrupt German competition, and internal correspondence indicates an eagerness to secure clothing contracts with Agent George Ross, as he represented a number of British regiments at the time. 

10 April 1755
To William Tod, London
"My Lord Milton desires you would wait on Mr. George Ross who is agent for the Earl of Home's and sundry other regiments and Make Lord Milton's compliments to him and let him know that if proper samples were fixed upon 'tis believed this Company could supply most of the regiments [at least in time] with their shirting linens and that if Mr. Ross thought it fit a trial might be made of supplying Lord Home's regiment which is now in Scotland & if that pleased others might be contracted for hereafter. And likewise the Company could engage to supply them with their linen for splatterdashes."

Mr. Tod was a sales agent for the British Linen Company operating from an office in London. Although it is unclear if he was successful signing George Ross to contract for clothing any of his regiments, including the 78th Foot, the amount of cloth needed to outfit a large army in such a short period of time [over 10 miles of material] would have definitely required the services of a company with considerable output capabilities. 

Clothing for a Highland Regiment
From the document titled "A State of Clothing for a Highland Regiment at first raising, 1757.
For each man, 1st year:
- 1 Coat
- 1 Waistcoat
- 1 Plaid
- 1 Bonnet
- 2 Shirts
- 2 Stocks
- 2 Pairs shoes
- 4 Pairs hose

For each man, 2d year:
- 1 Coat
- 1 Bonnet
- 1 Shirt
- 1 Stock
- 2 Pairs shoes
- 2 Pair hose

N.B. The plaid to last two years, the Shoes & hose to be deliver'd half yearly, Viz, one pair of Shoes & two pairs hose in June, and one pair Shoes wth. the other two pairs hose in December. The old Coat makes the vestcoat after the first cloathing.

From the document titled "Regulation of Cloathing for a Highland Regt. of Foot, c. 1757.
For a Serjeant:
- A Plaid of good tartan Cloth to be delivered once in two years at 1s/6d p. yard
- A Short Coat of Red Cloth every year
- A Waistcoat made out of the coat of preceding year
- A Bonnet every year at 1/2 a piece
- A good Shirt and Stock once a year
- A Pair of Short Hose every 3 Months at 1/5 p. pc
- A Pair of Shoes at 3/4 every 6 Months or money

For a Drummer:
- A Plaid of good Tartan Cloth once in two years containing 12 yards at 1s /p yard
- A Short Coat of good Cloth every year
- A Waistcoat made out of the Coat of the preceding yr
- A Bonnet every Year at 9d apiece
- A good Shirt and Stock once a year
- A pair of Short Hose every 3 Months ¾ yd. each at 10d p yard
- A pair of Shoes every 6 Months
- A belt and Sling once a year if wanted

For a private Soldr: as a Drummer:
Memoranda for Coll. Montgomery
- One of the Selvages to be Twiled
- Prices to be like Lord John Murray's
- Commission to Scott 2½ p cent
- Regimental buckles are got
- Regimental Garters to be bought at Glasgow
- Belts for Kelting Men provide
- Plaids, Bonnets, and Hose provided for the officers and charged to Paymaster

Note: It's worth mentioning, Lieutenant John Robertson, 42d Foot, gazetted 21 July 1758, paid James Scott, merchant in Edinburgh, for the following goods prior to his departure for North America. Scott operated a shoppe of eleven windows in the Canongate District near St. John's Cross to the foot of St. Mary's Wynd. Dated 23 August 1758. [NAS, GD132/395].

- 4 yards scarlet and white tartan
¾ yard superfine scarlet cloth
- 4 yards trustian
- 4½ yards tartan for phealbeg [sic]
- 2 yards broad linen for drawers
- Bonet [sic]
- Ribbons, cockade
- Black feathers
- 1 pair broad rib'd silk hose

Additionally, the lieutenant discharged an account to Jean Murray, merchant in Blair [Atholl], for tartan, ribbons for cockades, etc. Dated 29 March 1759. [NAS, GD132/397].

Alexander Grant, 77th Foot, had an account due with Peter Leith, for his military uniform. Dated 24 January 1757. [NAS, GD248/83/3]. This may be the same man listed as journeyman tailor in Edinburgh's South West Parish, Oct. 1754.

Sources:
Calcraft, John. "Regulation of Cloathing for a Highland Regt. of Foot, c. 1757." James Grant of Ballindalloch papers, 1740-1819, Library of Congress.

"A State of Clothing for a Highland Regiment at first rising, 1757." James Grant of Ballindalloch papers, 1740-1819, Library of Congress.

“British Linen Bank.” Lloyds Banking Group. www.lloydsbankinggroup.com/Our-Group/our-heritage/our-history/bank-of-scotland/british-linen-bank/. Accessed 10 January 2019.

Durie, Alastair J. The British Linen Company, 1745-1775. Scottish History Society, 1996. Internal company letter written to William Tod, 10 April 1755. 

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019. 

Tuesday, January 1, 2019

Payroll Account of Corporal James Smith, 1758

Corporal James Smith, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758
Much like today accounting books were used in the eighteenth century for documenting military pay and other related expenses accrued over periods of time. The payroll account of Corporal James Smith, 78th Regiment, covers the period of July 5, 1757, through April 24, 1758. 

Note: Category headers and bracketed script have been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document. Additionally, it would not be uncommon to discover accounting errors as these were gentlemen who created inaccuracies the same as you and I.

Income

To 9 Weeks Pay & arrears from y'e. 5th July to y'e. 5th Sept'r.
     £: 2. 0. 10½
To 5 Weeks arrears of Pay Due from y'e. 5th Sept'r. to 10th Oct'r.
     £: 0. 8. 1½
To 3 Weeks arrears @ 5p week
     
To 6 Weeks Pay & arrears Due from y'e. 17th Oct'r. to y'e. 28th Nov'r. 1757
     £: 1. 7. 3
To 21 Weeks arrears of Pay from y'e. 28th Nov'r. 1757 to y'e. 24th Apr'l. 1758
     £: 1. 14 . 1½

[Total]  £: 5. 10. 4½

Expenses

To 1 Pair Shoes & 1 Nap Sack
     £: 0. 6. 6
To 1 Haversacks & 1 Cocade
     £: 0. 1. 8
To 1 Pair Garters & 1 Sett buckles
     £: 0. 1. 4
To 1 Kilt & 1 Small belt
     £: 0. 1. 4
To 1 Turn Key Screw brush & wire
     £: 0. 0. 9
To Provisions at Glasgow
     £: 0. 4. 8
To Spruce Beer at Halifax
     £: 0. 2. 8
To 2 Cheq'd. Shirts
     £: 0. 7. 0
To 10 Months Stoppages for y'e. Payment Serjt. @ 1p month
     £: 0. 0. 10
To 7 Months D'o. for y'e. Barber @ 2p D’o.
     £: 0. 1. 2
To y'e. Proportion of a Cook's Frock
£: 0. 0. 8
To Cash given you at Fairf'd. & Boston
     £: 0. 18. 8

  [Total]  £: 2. 7. 3

 [Income minus Expenses equals Cash Paid]

To Cash Paid as Bala'ce of Above
       £: 3. 3. 1½

[Total]  £: 5. 10. 4½

Halifax 11th May 1758 Rec'd. y'e. above Bala'ce. in full of my Pay & arrears of Pay from y'e. Date of my Attestation to y'e. 24th Apr. last as witness of my hand.     [signed]  James Smith

Source:
Major James Clephane, "Payroll account of Corporal James Smith, 1758." Military Account Book at Halifax. NAS GD125-34-5, pp. 16-17.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019.  

Monday, December 17, 2018

Draught Soldiers to the 27th Regiment

27th Regiment of Foot muster rolls, 1763
In the summer of 1763, having received King George's Instructions regarding the reduction of the British armies in North America, the acting generals put in motion their plan for augmenting the three regiments that would remain guarding Quebec. It was decided the 15th, 27th, and 2d Battalion, 60th Royal American Regiment would be assigned this task.

An analysis of the official Subsistence Rolls of the 78th Regiment reveals approximately 358 soldiers remained in North America for this duty; some were volunteers, others were called upon because of the time remaining on their current enlistment contracts.

At the conclusion of the war, the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment experienced a significant reduction in the staffing of soldiers. And to maintain adequate troops levels required for guarding Quebec, subsequent muster rolls include augments from the 47th and 78th Foot, each providing men to replenish the regiment.

By September 1765, the regiment was distributed as follows: Four companies in the town of Quebec, three companies to Trois Rivieres, and two to Montreal, Colonel Massey being appointed to command the district.

In August 1767, the regiment embarked on board the transports for Europe, September 29th landed at Cork, Ireland, and the next day proceeded to Dublin. In the following year, the regiment was quartered at Limerick, returning to Dublin in 1769, where it remained until 1774 when it returned to Limerick.

It is not known how many 78th veterans from this group remained in North America.

Draughts of the 78th Regiment
The following 55 soldiers, recorded as veterans of the 78th Foot, are identified as having joined the 27th Foot on 25 August 1763. This muster is for 183 days ending 24 October 1763, the earliest available rolls after 1 September 1763, the date by which most of Colonel Fraser's men had transferred.

Lieutenant-Colonel Massey's Company
Reporting at St. Peters on South River, 24 October 1763
1. Private Andrew Anderson
2. Private John Cameron
3. Private Robert Keith
4. Private Loughlin Mitchal
5. Private Daniel McIntosh
6. Private John McIntosh
7. Private William McKinzie
8. Private James Taveish

Major John Maunsell's Company
Reporting at St. Peters on South River, 24 October 1763
9. Private Allexr. Faquher
10. Private Keneth McLean
11. Private Angush McDonold

Captain James Holmes' Company
Reporting at Trois Rivieres, 29 October 1763
12. Private Malkam Fergison
13. Private John Kennady
14. Private Laughlin McGuire

Captain John Campbell's Company
Reporting at St. Francois, 2 November 1763
15. Private Bryan Cairy
16. Private Donald Camaron
17. Private Evan Camaron
18. Private Collin Campbell
19. Private John Campbell
20. Private John Fraser
21. Private Jeremiah Fraser
22. Private Allexander Fraser
23. Private John Hutcheson
24. Private William McGilveroy
25. Private John McDonald, Senr.
26. Private Donald McPhii
27. Private Christopher McKinzey
28. Private John McDonald, Junr.
29. Private Evan McBean
30. Private Evan McMullan
31. Private Donald McDonald
32. Private John McGibbans
33. Private Robert McKinn
34. Private Allexander Murray
35. Private Robert Pellypren [Bellypren?]
36. Private John Summers

Captain Apollos Morris' Company
Reporting at Point au Tremble, 25 October 1763
37. Private Dennis Carney
38. Private Duncan Campbell
39. Private James Filk
40. Private Hugh Grimes
41. Private John McGinnis
42. Private Bryan Murphy
43. Private William Morrow
44. Private Peter McIntire
45. Private William Noble

Captain Henry Pringle's Company
Reporting at De Chambo, 27 October 1763
46. Private Jno. Duff
47. Private Alexr. Fletcher
48. Private Danl. Frazer
49. Private Jno. Reed

Captain Philip Skene's Company
Reporting at St. Anns, 28 October 1763
50. Private Alexander Hackny
51. Private John Muster'd
52. Private Robert McFarling
53. Private Archibold Robinson

Captain William Stewart's Company
Reporting at Trois Rivieres, 29 October 1763
54. Private William Hearly
55. Private George Strachan

Notes:
2. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
4. Listed as Lachlin Mitchell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
5. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
6. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
7. Recorded as 78th veteran, and appears on a 1765 land grant submitted by veterans, but not listed on any known rosters for the 78th Regiment.
8. Listed as Tavish on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
9. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
10. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
11. Probably Angus McDonell, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
12. Listed as Malcolm Ferguson on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
13. Listed as Kennedy on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
14. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
15. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767; there recorded as Keary.
16. Listed as Cameron on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
17. Listed as Cameron on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
21. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767.
22. Listed as Alexander on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
23. Listed as Hutchinson on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 1st Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
24. Listed as McGillivrae on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
25. Listed as McDonell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Father to soldier #28.
26. Listed as McPhie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
27. Listed as McKenzie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
28. Listed as McDonell on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Son to soldier #25.
30. Listed as McMillan on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
32. Listed as Gibbons on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767; there recorded as McGibbons.
34. Listed as Alexander on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 52nd Foot by 9 October 1767.
35. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
36. Listed as Summer on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
37. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Name appears elsewhere as a veteran of the 47th Foot. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767.
39. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
40. Possibly Hugh Graham, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
41. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify.
42. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 29th Foot by 9 October 1767.
43. Possibly William Moore or More, as listed on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 15th Foot by 9 October 1767; there recorded as Mourow.
44. Listed as McIntyre on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
47. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
46. Listed as Duffie on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
48. Recorded as 78th veteran [possibly Donald Fraser], but unable to properly verify. See forenames explanation below.
49. Listed as Ried on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
50. Recorded as 78th veteran, but unable to properly verify. Later joined the 1st Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
51. Recorded as "away on command." Listed as Mustard on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.
52. Recorded as "away on command." Listed as McFarlane on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls. Later joined the 2nd Battalion, 60th Royal Americans by 9 October 1767.
53. Recorded as "away on command."
54. Listed as Harley on the 78th Regiment subsistence rolls.

Interchangeable names
The following names were most likely used interchangeably:

Forenames
- Daniel & Donald are sometimes, but not always, interchangeable in Scotland, because Domhnall, the Gaelic version of Donald, may be Anglicised as Daniel.

Surnames
- Graham/Grimes
- McDonald/McDonell

Sources:
War Office Records. 27th Foot, 1st Battalion. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists, 1759-1777. TNA, W.O. 12/4328.

War Office Records: Muster Books and Paylists: General, 47th Regiment, 1760-1763. LAC, W.O. 12/5871, Microfilm C-9202.

War Office Records: Return of Volunteers from the Inniskilling Regiment of Foot, given to the following Regiments. New York, 9 October 1767. In Letters, Military Despatches, Gen. Gage, 1767-1769, W.O. 1, vol. 8. LAC.

Trimble, William Copeland. The Historical Record of the 27th Inniskilling Regiment: from the Period of Its Institution as a Volunteer Corps till the Present Time. Clowes, 1876.

National Battlefields Commission, "Database of 1759-1760: Soldiers on the Plains of Abraham." Web. http://www.ccbn-nbc.gc.ca/en/history-heritage/battles-1759-1760/soldiers/. Accessed 17 December 2018.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

Donald Whyte, "Scottish Forenames." Details of a the forename Daniel. Web.
http://www.whatsinaname.net/male-names/Daniel.html. Accessed 17 December 2018.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Saturday, December 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Twelve

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
12th. By this day's orders it appears the General intends a most vigorous attack, supposed behind the town, where to appearance a landing is impracticable.

Our disposition terminates thus ; that the Light Infantry are to lead and land first, in order to maintain a picquering with the enemy (as also cover the troops' debarkation) till the army take a footing on the heights.

We are to embark on board our flatt-bottomed boats by 12 o'clock and upon the Sunderland man-of-war showing a light, we are to repair to that rendevouze, where the boats will range in a line and proceed when ordered in the manner directed ; viz. the Light Infantry the van, and the troops to follow by seniority. The army compleated to 70 rounds ammunition each man ; and the flatt-bottomed boats to repair to the different vessells, and proportionably divide according to the number on board the ship.

By 10 o'clock Colonel How called for the volunteers in the Light Infantry, signifying to them, that the General intends that a few men may land before the Light Infantry and army, and scramble up the rock, when ordered by Capt. Delaune, who is to be first in the boat along with us ; saying that he thought proper to propose it to us, as he judged it owuld be a choice, and that is any of us survived, might depend on our being recommended to the General. made answer : We were sensible of the honour he did, in making us the first offer of an affair of such importance as our landing first, where an opportunity occured of distinguishing ourselves, assuring him his agreeable order would be put in execution with the greatest activity, care, and vigour in our power.

he observing our number consisted only of eight men, viz. :

1st. Fitz-gerald
2nd. Robertson
3rd. Stewart
4th. Mc Allester
5th. Mackenzie
6th Mc Pherson
7th. Cameron
8th. Bell

Ordered we should take 2 men of our own choice from three companys of Lt. Infantry, which in all made 24 men. Which order being put in execution we embarked in our boat. Fine weather, the night calm, and silence all over.

Waiting impatiently for the signal of proceeding.

September 12th and 13th. Morning, 2 o'clock, the signal was made for our proceeding, which was done in pretty good order, the same disposition formerly mentioned. When we came pretty close to the heights we rowed close in with the north shore, which made the Hunter sloop-of-war, who lay of, suspect us to be enemy, not being apprised of our coming down. However, we passed two sentries on the beach without being asked any questions. The third sentry challenged, who is there? Was answered by Capt. Fraser in the French tongue, saying we are the provision boats from Montreal, cautioning the sentry to be silent, otherwise he would expose us to the fire of the English man-of-war. This took place till such time as their officer was acquainted, who had reason to suspect us, ordering all his sentrys to fire upon us ; but by this time the aforesaid volunteer was up in eminence, and a part of the Light Infantry following. After we got up we only received on fire, which we returned briskly, and took a prisoner, the remaining part of the enemy flying into a field of corn. At same time we discovered a body of men making towards us, who we did not know (it being only daybreak), but were the enemy ; we put ourselves in the best posture of making a defence ; two of us advanced, when they came close, and challenged them, when we found it was Capt. Fraser with his co., who we join'd, and advanced to attack this party of the enemy lodged in the field, who directly fled, before us ; by pursuing close the Lieut. and his drummer came in to us. In this interval the whole of the Light Infantry were on the heights, and a part of the regts. We remained till the whole army took post, when we were detached to silence a battery who kept firing on our shipping who were coming down the river. This was effected without the loss of a man ; the enemy placed one of the cannon to flank, drew off, and got into the woods which was within forty yards of the battery. We demolished the powder, and came away.

On our return we saw our army forming the line of battle ; we (Light Infantry), who stood about 800 paces from the line, were ordered to face outwards, and cover the rear of our line, as there was a body of the enemy in their rear and front of the Light Infantry. About 6 o'clock observed the enemy coming from town, and forming under cover of their cannon ; we saw they were numerous, therefore the General made the proper disposition for battle ; they marched up in one extensive line. When they came within a reconoitring view they halted, advancing a few of their Irregulars, who kept picquering with one or two platoons, who were advanced for that purpose, at the same itm playing with three field pieces of our line. On which the General ordered the line to lay down till the enemy came close, when they were to rise up and give their fire. The enemy, thinking by our disappearing, that their cannon disconcerted us, they thought proper to embrace the opportunity ; wheeling back from the centre, and formed three powerful columns, advanced very regular with their cannon playing on us. By this time we had one field piece on the right, and two howats on the left who began to give fire ; the enemy huzza'd, advancing with a short trott (which was effectually shortened to a number of them) they began their fire on the left, the whole of them reclining that way, but received and sustained such a check that the smell of gunpowder became nautious ; they broke their line, running to all parts of the compass.

To our great concern and loss General Wolfe was mortally wounded ; but the Brigadiers, who were also wounded, excepting Murray, seeing the enemy break, ordered the Granadiers to charge in among them with their bayonets, as also the Highlanders with their swords, which did some execution, particularyy in the pursuit.

During the lined being engaged, a body of the enemy attacked a part of the Light Infantry on the right, were repulsed, and thought proper to follow the fait of traverse sailing. As I was not in the line of battle I can't say what the latest disposition of the enemy way before engaging.

How soon this action was over we received a part of our intrenching tools and began to make redoubts, not knowing but next morning we would have another to cut, as the enemy expected 13 companies of Granadiers to join, and about 2000 men who occupy'd a post mean Point au Treamp, but it seemed they were not recovered of the former morning's portion ; not liking English medicines.

This affair gave great spirit to the whole army, notwithstanding the loss of much regretted Life of the Army, General Wolfe. The men kept-sober, which was a great maxim of their bravery.

Towards the evening a part of the enemy, who were the Regulars, formed, who seemed to make a shew of standing ; Colonel Burton, 48th regt. was drawn opposite with a field piece in their front, which disputed them. We took post in our redoubts ; not having the camp equipage on shore, part of the army lay on their arms in the field till next morning. All quiet during the night of the 13th.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, December 1, 2018

Army Return of the Battle of Sainte-Foy, 28 Apr. 1760

Army Return of The Battle of Sainte-Foy, 28 Apr. 1760
The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 near the British-held town of Quebec in the French province of Canada during the Seven Years' War (called the French and Indian War in the United States). It was a victory for the French under the Chevalier de LĂ©vis over the British army under General Murray. The battle was notably bloodier than the Battle of the Plains of Abraham of the previous September, and it was considered the last French victory in North America.

Return of the Officers, that were Killed, Wounded, Taken Prisoners, Missing, on the 28th of April 1760
Amherst's 15th Regiment
Killed:
1. Lieut. Maxwell, Senr.
Wounded:
2. Capt. Lieut. Cockburn
3. Lieut. Mukins
4. Lieut. Maxwell, Junr.
5. Lieut. Cathcart
6. Lieut. Winter
7. Lieut. Irwin
8. Lieut. Lockhart
9. Ens. Moneypenny
10. Ens. Bartlett
11. Ens. Mills
12. Ens. Barker
Wounded Prisoner:
13. Lt. Hamilton
14. Ens. Montgomery

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 4
- Rank & File: 21
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 9
- Rank & File: 82

Notes:
1 & 4: Lts. Maxwell: father/son
14. Ens. Montgomery would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Bragg's 28th Regiment
Wounded:
1. Colonel Walsh
2. Major Dalling
3. Capt. Spann
4. Capt. Mitchelson
5. Lt. & Adj. Tassell
6. Lieut. Brown
7. Lieut. Phibbs
8. Ens. Gilmer
9. Ens. Sheppard
10. Ens. Beal

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 14
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 4
- Drummers: 4
- Rank & File: 100

Otway's 35th Regiment
Wounded Prisoner:
1. Captain Ince
2. Lieut. Brown
3. Ens. Lysaght

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Rank & File: 12
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 43

Notes:
1. Captain Ince would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Kennedy's 43rd Regiment
Wounded:
1. Captain Skey
2. Lieut. Clements
Prisoner:
3. Captain Maitland
Wounded Prisoner:
4. Ens. Maw

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Rank & File: 5
Wounded:
- Rank & File: 16

Lascelle's 47th Regiment
Killed:
1. Major Hussey
Prisoner:
2. Lieut. Sheriff
Wounded:
3. Lieut. Forster
4. Lieut. Bassett
5. Lieut. Ewer
6. Lieut. Stratford
7. Ens. Ulstik
8. Ens. Handfield
Wounded Prisoner:
9. Captain Archbold

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 10
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 43

Notes:
9. Captain Archbold would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Webb's 48th Regiment
Killed:
1. Ens. Nicholson
Wounded:
2. Capt. Sir James Cockburn
3. Capt. Lieut. Barbutt
4. Lieut. Waterhouse
5. Lieut. Royce
6. Lieut. Crowe
7. Lieut. Moore
8. Ens. Campbell
9. Ens. Johnson
Prisoner:
10. Lieut. Davers

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Rank & File: 22
Wounded:
- Rank & File: 63

Anstruther's 58th Regiment
Killed:
1. Ens. Conway

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 7
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 3
- Rank & File: 45

Monckton's 2d Bn. 60th Regiment
Wounded:
1. Ens. Snow Steel
2. Ens. Donald McDonald

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 1
Wounded:
- Rank & File: 9

Lawrence's 3d Bn. 60th Regiment
Wounded:
1. Capt. Faesch
2. Lieut. Faesch
3. Lieut. Campbell
4. Lieut. Grant
5. Lieut. Stephens
6. Lieut. Lewis Forbes
7. Ens. Pinckney
8. Ens. McGee
9. Ens. Hill
10. Ens. Stewart
Prisoner:
11. Colonel Young
12. Capt. Charteris

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 1
- Rank & File: 9
Wounded:
- Rank & File: 32

Notes:
6. Lieut. Lewis Forbes would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Fraser's 78th Regiment
Killed:
1. Capt. Donald McDonnell
2. Lieut. Cosmo Gordon
Wounded:
3. Colonel Fraser
4. Capt. John Campbell
5. Capt. Alexr. Fraser
6. Capt. McLeod
7. Lieut. Archd. Campbell
8. Lt. Hector McDonnell
9. Lt. Donald McBean
10. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Senr.
11. Lt. John Nairn
12. Lt. Arthur Rose
13. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Junr.
14. Lt. Simon Fraser, Senr.
15. Lt. Archd. McAllister
16. Lt. Alexr. Fraser, Grenadiers
17. Lt. John Chissolm
18. Lt. Simon Fraser, Junr.
19. Lt. Malcolm Fraser
20. Lt. Donald McNeil
21. Ens. Henry Munroe
22. Ens. Robert Menzies
23. Ens. Charles Stewart
24. Ens. Duncan Cameron
25. Ens. William Robertson
26. Capt. Lt. Chas. McDonnell
Wounded Prisoner:
27. Ens. Alexr. Gregorson
28. Ens. Malcolm Fraser
Missing:
29. Lt. Alexr. Campbell

Non-commissioned officers
Killed:
- Serjeants: 3
- Drummers: 1
- Rank & File: 51
Wounded:
- Serjeants: 10
- Rank & File: 119

Notes:
8. Lt. Hector McDonnell expired 8 May 1760 from his wounds.
10 & 13: Lts. Fraser: father/son
14 & 18: Lts. Fraser: father/son
28. Ens. Malcom Fraser would later expire at Montreal from his wounds.

Artillery
Wounded:
1. Major Goodwin
2. 2d Lieut. Heathcoat
3. 2d Lieut. Scott
4. Lt. Fireworker Davidson
Wounded Prisoner:
5. Lt. Fireworker Cooke

Wounded:
- Bombardiers: 3
- Gunners: 1
- Matrosses: 6
Missing:
- Matrosses: 1

Chief Engineer
Wounded:
1. Major McKellar

Rangers
Wounded:
1. Capt. Hazzen

Sources:
James Wolfe, "Return of the officers, that were killed, wounded, taken prisoners, missing, on the 28th of April 1760." Northcliff Collection: Series 1: Robert Monckton Papers. LAC, Microfilm: C-366.

James Murray, "List of officers sent in Governor Murray’s return not included in the list of English prisoners returned from Canada, June 14, 1760." War Officer Records: Amherst Papers. Correspondence between French Officers in North America and the Commander-in-Chief, 1757-1761. LAC, W.O. 34, vol. 10.

Marie Fraser, "Lieutenant Hector McDonnell died of his wounds, 8 May 1760." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

“Capt Ince and four officers died of their wounds.” The Pennsylvania Gazette, 3 July 1760.

“Battle of Sainte-Foy.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 2 Aug. 2018, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battle_of_Sainte-Foy.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

The Siege of Quebec: Week Eleven

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
September 5th, 1759. The whole of our Light Infantry, under command of Colonel How, to march 1/4 mile to the westward of Goram's post (formerly mentioned), where they are to embark on board the men-of-war and transports. As we were passing the river Else Chemin the enemy fired from a two-gun battery. None of us hurt ; prodigiously crowded on board.

6th. Nothing extraordinary. We drove up with the flood tide opposite Cape Rouge, discovered some men on the north shore fortyfying the bay to the eastward of the Cape, as also a house which they occupy'd.

This evening His Excellency General Wolfe, with the three Brigadier and the army of the intended attack, embarked. The army in great spirits.

7th. Remains on the same anchorage ground as yesterday. The General in the Hunter sloop-of-war went up the length of Point au Tremble to reconoitre. The enemy continues to word on the north shore.

8th. The General with the Hunter sloop returned at 12 o'cl., orders for 1500 men to prepare to land on north shore, and wait the night tide, under the command of the Brigadiers Moncton and Murray.

A faint.

The Hunter sloop-of-war, one transport with Roy. Americans, and another with Light Infantry, to fall up to Point au Tremble, and return with the ebb tide in the morning. The weather very rainy.

9th. The weather continues very rainy, which prevents the 1500 men landing. We remained off Point au Tremble. The remaining vessels in their former station opposite to Capr Rouge. We can;t perceive any works on the beach, only small entrenchments from the mill to a house about 300 yards to the eastward (belonging to Point au Tremble), and discovered but very few men. 60 bataves on shore ; no floating batterys.

10th. At 8 o'clock this morning returned to Cape Rouge with the ebb tide. This morning a part of the army landed on the south shore, as also three companys Light Infantry, in order to refresh the men and dry their camp equipage after the constant heave rains we had these two past days. Capt. Fraser's co remained on board by lott.

The General went down the river to reconoitre the north shore.

A soldier of Capt. Delaune's co. fell overboard and drowned.

11th. Nothing extraordinary. The troops that landed yesterday remains on shore ; the situation of the enemy the same as the past two days.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, November 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Ten

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 29th, 1759. We are informed at Point Levy camp that three Rangers have brought in three scalps from St Andre, and took a courier with letters, orders, and directions to the captains of militia and friers, desiring them to keep constant guards, and inform the inhabitants that we shall be soon obliged to leave the country.

30th. By order of his Excellency General Wolfe the three Brigadiers assembled in order to consul the measures most practicable for the good of the service. The result of the conference not known by us.

31st. By a deserter we are informed that the enemy are sickly, and discontented with their Indians. Meeting four Indians of the Mohawk tribe with an officer from General Amherst, treacherously deceived them by pretending friendship, and at the same time conducted to a party of French, who made them prisoners, and they are confined on board the frigates formerly mentioned. At nigh the Sea Horse man-of-war, three catts, and one schooner passed the town ; after receiving alarm, cannonading from the battery. None hurt.

September 1st. All the houses below Montmorency Falls, or to the eastward, sett on fire by our army. This forenoon some cannon carried from the Montmorency side to the camp at Point Levy. Our troops there expect an attack from the enemy this night, which is very desirable to all our gentlemen.

2nd. The remaining cannon carried from Montmorency this day.

The Assistant Qr-Master marked the encampments for the Brigade and Lt. Infantry from Montmorency to the left of our cantonments. We hear that the additional company of our regt. are in the river.

3rd. This morning the troops at Montmorency decamped, embarked in boats without the least molestation or advantages taken at that important time of their drawing off. Passing the Point of Orleans, the enemy fired from their batterys (to the westwd of the Falls) both shott and shells none of which made any execution. The enemy's generosity in the above particular and critical juncture is a plain proof that Monsieur Montcalm will make no other use of the Canadians than defend their capital. He must be concerned to see Montmorency abandoned, it not being safe for him to depend on part of his troops to give the least annoyance ; likewise permitting us to detach what numbers we please, to lay waste their country, and still remain in his entrenched camp at Beauport.

This day Captn Cameron of Colonel Fraser's regt. died, much and justly regretted, as he was a most agreeable, sensible, and benevolent man.

We hear the Sunderland man-of-war was attacked the night of the 29th ulto. by 75 bataves; the enemy were repulsed with the loss of 4 bataves taken. In orders, the Light Infantry commanded by Capt. Carden to return to the regt. and all the corps of Lt. Infantry to receive their orders from Colonel How.

4th. An officer and three Rangers arrived in camp with dispatches from General Amherst to General Wolfe, whom they left at Crown Point 8th of Aug. making all preparations necessary for pursuing his design and first the possession of Lake Champlain. We hear nothing of the contents in these dispatches further than a random shott carrying off Colonel Townshend, one ensign and three men of the Light Infantry.

This evening Capt. Cameron aforesaid buried, and Capt. Fraser of Culduthell with his additional company arrived in the harbour.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.