Showing posts with label Uniforms. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Uniforms. Show all posts

Monday, July 1, 2019

Clothing Suppliers to the Highland Regiments, 1757

In our discussion entitled, Clothing for the Highland Regiments, 1757, the main emphasis of that conversation is centered around identifying the army clothier(s) responsible for procuring the different uniform components for the three Scottish Regiments sent to North America in 1756-1757. And while it was discovered a gentleman named James Mann was the personal clothier for Colonel Fraser's 78th Foot (he was responsible for coordinating with the different trades involved to complete uniform orders), it is equally important to identify the suppliers for each of the components, in order to get a better understanding of those involved with outfitting over 3000 soldiers for duty overseas.

Below, initial research indicates the available suppliers in support of the Highland Regiments. And since we're just beginning to scratch the surface in identifying the historic documents involved,  continued updates to this discussion will be provided as new evidence is uncovered.

Lord John Murray's 42nd Regiment
1. Coats - shipped by Fisher & Pearse, Westminster, England
2. Shoes - shipped from Glasgow, Scotland
2a. Shoe buckles
4. Leg hose - shipped from Glasgow, Scotland
5. Bonnets - shipped from Glasgow, Scotland
6. Cockades
7. Tartan (plaid)
8. Shirts - manufactured by William Sandeman, Luncarty, Perth, Scotland
9. Stockings
10. Garters
11. Kilting-belts

Colonel Archibald Montgomery's 77th Regiment
12. Coats
13. Shoes - order received at Glasgow, Scotland
13a. Shoe buckles
15. Leg hose
16. Bonnets
17. Cockades
18. Tartan (plaid)
19. Shirts
20. Stockings
21. Garters - bought at Glasgow, Scotland
22. Kilting-belts - soldiers provided their own during initial outfitting

Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Regiment 
23. Coats
24. Shoes - order received at Glasgow, Scotland
24a. Shoe buckles
26. Leg hose
27. Bonnets
28. Cockades
29. Tartan (plaid)
30. Shirts
31. Stockings
32. Garters
33. Kilting-belts

1/2/4/5. “Letter from Major General Lord John Murray to Lieutenant Colonel Francis Grant, with clothing invoice.” London, 11 June 1757. John Rylands University, Manchester University; Bagshawe Muniments, I-XI. Correspondence and Papers, V. Lord John Murray (d.1787) and his wife Mary, nee Dalton (d. 1765), 5/1/1-460. Correspondence, 1-408. Bound manuscript volume of copies of letters and regimental orders concerning the 42nd or Royal Highland Regiment (1756-57).

     Fisher & Pearse, Blackwell Hall factors, operated shop in Lothbury, Westminster, England. About June 1757, they shipped over 1000 coats, and various other items including thread, thimbles, corporal’s & piper’s knots, red feathers, etc., to Lord John Murrary’s Regiment in North America. 

8. Ibid., "Letter to Mr. William Sandeman [in tight binding] at Perth [Scotland]. Tuesday, London, July 12th, with order for cloathing the 3 additional companies."

     William Sandeman was a leading Perthshire linen and later cotton manufacturer. In nearby Luncarty, for instance, at one point, he produced an order of 12,000 to 15,000 yards of “Soldiers’ shirting”. Biography of William Sandeman. [Accessed 30 June 2019].

4/15/26. Diamond pattern leg hose was most likely made from red/white tartan. “Discharged account paid by Lieut. John Robertson to Jean Murray, merchant in Blair, for tartan, ribbons for cockades, etc.” 27 March 1759. NAS, GD 132/397.

13/24. “From Glasgow: An order was received from London, to provide 2400 pairs of shoes and also Shoulder-Belts for the two Highland Regiments now raising.” The Public Advertiser, 3 February 1757.

13a. Agent John Calcraft writes: “Regimental buckles [for Colonel Montgomery’s 77th Foot] are got.” Regulation of Cloathing for a Highland Regt. of Foot, c. 1757. James Grant of Ballindalloch papers, 1740-1819, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

21. Ibid., “Regimental garters to be bought at Glasgow.” 

22. Ibid., “Belts for kelting [sic, kilting] men provide.”

23. In 1759, the lacing of Colonel Fraser’s coats was coordinated by James Mann, Woolen-draper, Strand, Westminster, UK. “Letter from William Fauquier to Lt.-Gen. Robt. Napier.” 18 December 1759. TNA, Clothing Board [Letters], WO 7/26.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019.

Thursday, January 10, 2019

Clothing for the Highland Regiments, 1757

The official tartan worn by the 78th Foot remains a mystery; however, many historians believe it was the Black Watch plaid, same as the 42d FootIt is suspected this was also the tartan worn by Colonel Montgomery's 77th Foot, and researchers conclude any striking changes by Colonel Fraser would have probably been noted.

Colonel Fraser's army agent, George Ross, was most likely responsible for procuring uniforms for the 78th Foot [then - the Second Highland Battalion] on the colonel's behalf. Typically, the agent was responsible for handling the  administrative and financial matters, including ordering uniforms through a hired army clothier, who would employ the various trades (weavers, tailors, cordwainers, lace and button makers, etc.) to fulfill contracts and ship goods. As there were numerous army clothiers supplying the regiments, identifying the specific clothier used might assist in locating the exact cloth Colonel Fraser and his men would have worn.

Army Clothiers
Two known army clothiers during the war were James Mann (St. Martin in the Fields), brother to Galfridus Mann (d. 1756 - who originally inherited the business from his father, Robert), and William Wilson (The Strand), both of Westminster, UK. Coincidentally, George Ross also maintained an office in that city on Conduit Street, along with other prominent army agents, including John Calcraft. Following the death of Galfridus Mann, it is strongly suspect his brother James petitioned the Earl of Loudoun to maintain current company army clothing contracts. In a letter dated 7 Jan. 1757, John Calcraft, agent for both the 42d and 77th Foot, tells Loudoun: "...Now my Lord let me tell you Mr. Mann is dead which you will I suppose hear from his Brother & receive also a sollicitation (sic) to be continued clothier - you will too receive a letter from Fisher and many others on the same subject."

John Calcraft (1726-1772) operated an army agency in Westminster, England, handling the administrative and financial affairs of numerous regiments. His agency appears to have transferred to Thomas Fisher about 1761. [LAC, John Calcraft fonds description; microfilm A-1101].

1759 Kent City Directory, Westminster:
Fisher & Pearse: Blackwelhall-factors, Lothbury.
James Mann: Woollen-draper, near Durham-Yard, Strand.
William Willson: Woollen-draper, Strand.

Army clothiers, James Mann and William Wilson, and the office of Mr. Wilson, military agent for the 43rd Regiment of Foot, Westminster, UK, 1759.
Offices of British army clothiers, James Mann and William Wilson, and of Mr. Wilson, military agent to the 43rd Regiment of Foot, in Westminster, UK, 1759.

Army Clothiers Petition
The following letter is a petition of clothiers to the army asking for payment of 'off-reckonings' and complaining about backwardness in payments.

     To the Right Honourable The Lords Commissioners of his Majestys Treasury. The Humble Memorial of the Clothiers to his Majestys Army - Shewith:

     That throughout the whole Course of the present War, your Memorialists have been greatly distress'd by the Backwardness in payment of Off Reckonings, at times when Money could not be borrowed on any Security, the price of Labour near double, and Materials 10p Cent: higher, than they had been at breaking out of the War.

      That the same Circumstances of Distress in many Respects still continue, And your Memorialists have at this time the Clothing of the whole Army to put in hand; which it is really out of their power to do till they shall be enabled by payment of some Off Reckonings, no payment having been made since April last and that, only till June 1761.

     Your Memorialists therefore humbly prays your Lordships to take their Case into Consideration and to order payment of a years Off Reckonings to 24 June 1762.

Fisher & Pearse
Jno. Hankins
Wm. Wilson
James Mann

Cover sheet:
To the Right Hon'ble
The Lords Commissioners of
His Majestys Treasury
The Humble Petition of
the Clothiers to the Army

7th Jany. 1763
Read 1 Mar. 1763

Letters of the Clothing Board
London, 10 December 1759

Mr. Ross agent to Col. Fraser's Battalion having represented to His Excellency Field Marshal Lord Viscot. Ligonier, that there having been no Lace last year upon the clothing of the said Battalion, and that there is not Time at present for making the Quantity requisets to lace the cloaths, according to the Directions of the General Officers of the Clothing, His Lordsh. orders me to acquaint you, that he has consented to that Battalion's Cloathing being made up (for this Time only) without Lace, with which I am to desire you will be pleas'd to acquaint the Cloathing Board.

I am
your most obedient
humble servant
[signed] Robt. Napier Adjt. Genl.

To Wm. Fauquier Esqr.

Note: William Fauquier replied to Robert Napier eight days later with the following below response.

Comptrollers Office, Horse Guards, 18 Dec. 1759

I am order'd by the Cloathing Board held here today, to acquaint you, that as they apprehend the case of want of time to lace Col. Fraser's Battalion, has been misrepresented to his Excellency Field Marshal Lord Viscot. Ligonier; and Lord John Murray's Patterns, which were under the same circumstances, and therefore postpon'd at the last Board, were this day produc'd properly laced and lapelld; and Mr. Mann the clothier having engag'd to the Board, that Col. Fraser's shall be laced and lapell'd in time; They desire you will represent to his Lordshp., that as the Reason for not complying with the general order is thereby removed, They imagine his Lordshp. will think it proper that they should see His Majesty's orders comply'd with; and have order'd the Patterns of cloathing properly laced & lapell'd to be exhibited at another Board to be held on Monday next. I am with the greatest Respect,

your most obedient
humble servant
[signed] Wm. Fauquier

To Lieut. Genl. Napier.

Note: It can now be definitively stated that James Mann was, in fact, the official clothier for Colonel Fraser's Regiment, at least during the first few years of the war. Additionally, in the original letter of 18 December, "want of time" is underlined.

[Clothing; TNA, WO 7/26].

Early Scottish Manufacturing
The British Linen Company was established in Edinburgh by royal charter in 1746. The Company was empowered to 'carry on the Linen Manufactory in all its branches' and was granted limited liability. The word 'British' in its title was an attempt to deflect the suspicion aroused by all things Scottish, after the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745. The Company's key promoters were the 3rd Duke of Argyll; Lord Milton; the Earl of Panmure; and George Middleton, a London banker.

As the production of Scottish manufacturing grew slowly in the 1730s, the commercial output of linen doubled from an annual average of 3.5 million yards in 1728-32 to 7.8 million yards by 1748-52. The British Linen Company's prospects brightened in the mid-1750s as war promised to disrupt German competition, and internal correspondence indicates an eagerness to secure clothing contracts with Agent George Ross, as he represented a number of British regiments at the time. 

10 April 1755
To William Tod, London
"My Lord Milton desires you would wait on Mr. George Ross who is agent for the Earl of Home's and sundry other regiments and Make Lord Milton's compliments to him and let him know that if proper samples were fixed upon 'tis believed this Company could supply most of the regiments [at least in time] with their shirting linens and that if Mr. Ross thought it fit a trial might be made of supplying Lord Home's regiment which is now in Scotland & if that pleased others might be contracted for hereafter. And likewise the Company could engage to supply them with their linen for splatterdashes."

Mr. Tod was a sales agent for the British Linen Company operating from an office in London. Although it is unclear if he was successful signing George Ross to contract for clothing any of his regiments, including the 78th Foot, the amount of cloth needed to outfit a large army in such a short period of time (over 10 miles of material) would have definitely required the services of a company with considerable output capabilities. 

Clothing for a Highland Regiment
From the document entitled, A State of Clothing for a Highland Regiment at first raising, 1757. 
For each man, 1st year:
- 1 Coat
- 1 Waistcoat
- 1 Plaid
- 1 Bonnet
- 2 Shirts
- 2 Stocks
- 2 Pairs shoes
- 4 Pairs hose

For each man, 2d year:
- 1 Coat
- 1 Bonnet
- 1 Shirt
- 1 Stock
- 2 Pairs shoes
- 2 Pair hose

N.B. The plaid to last two years, the Shoes & hose to be deliver'd half yearly, Viz, one pair of Shoes & two pairs hose in June, and one pair Shoes wth. the other two pairs hose in December. The old Coat makes the vestcoat after the first cloathing.

From the document entitled, Regulation of Cloathing for a Highland Regt. of Foot, c. 1757. 
For a Serjeant:
- A Plaid of good tartan Cloth to be delivered once in two years at 1s/6d p. yard
- A Short Coat of Red Cloth every year
- A Waistcoat made out of the coat of preceding year
- A Bonnet every year at 1/2 a piece
- A good Shirt and Stock once a year
- A Pair of Short Hose every 3 Months at 1/5 p. pc
- A Pair of Shoes at 3/4 every 6 Months or money

For a Drummer:
- A Plaid of good Tartan Cloth once in two years containing 12 yards at 1s /p yard
- A Short Coat of good Cloth every year
- A Waistcoat made out of the Coat of the preceding yr
- A Bonnet every Year at 9d apiece
- A good Shirt and Stock once a year
- A pair of Short Hose every 3 Months ¾ yd. each at 10d p yard
- A pair of Shoes every 6 Months
- A belt and Sling once a year if wanted

For a private Soldr: as a Drummer:
Memoranda for Coll. Montgomery
- One of the Selvages to be Twiled
- Prices to be like Lord John Murray's
- Commission to Scott 2½ p cent
- Regimental buckles are got
- Regimental Garters to be bought at Glasgow
- Belts for Kelting Men provide
- Plaids, Bonnets, and Hose provided for the officers and charged to Paymaster

42d Foot
Lieutenant John Robertson, 42d Foot, gazetted 21 July 1758, paid James Scott, merchant in Edinburgh for the following goods prior to his departure to the West Indies. Scott operated a shoppe in the Canongate District near St. John's Cross to the foot of St. Mary's Wynd. Dated 23 August 1758. [NAS, GD132/395].

- 4 yards scarlet and white tartan [presumably for the diamond pattern leg hose]
¾ yards superfine scarlet cloth
- 4 yards tristian
- 4½ yards tartan for phealbeg
- 2 yards broad linen for drawers
- Bonet 
- Ribbons, cockade
- Black feathers
- 1 pair broad rib'd silk hose

Additionally, the lieutenant discharged an account to Jean Murray, merchant in Blair [Atholl], for tartan, ribbons for cockades, etc. Dated 27 March 1759. [NAS, GD132/397].

July 30, 1758
- 4 yd fine Tartan
- 2 yd best red & white tartan
- 3 yd garters
- 3½ fine tartan
- 2 yd Ribban for Cockads
- 3 oz thread

Aug 2.
- 11 yd tartan
- 4 yd Ribban for Cockads
- 1oz thread
- 3½ yd tartan
- 1 oz thread
- 4 yd fine tartan
- 9 yd tartan
- 4 yd fine Ditto
- 8 yd Ribban
- 1oz thread
- 1 yd fine red & white tartan
- 6 yd tartan
- 2½ Broad black Ribban
- 3 yd fine garter
- 19 yd Ribban for Cockads
- 2¼ fine tartan red & white
- 3 yds Coarse Ditto
- 5½ of Linnen
¼ of Cambrick
- 2 oz thread
- 2 quare post paper
½ Pound of Candy Bread
- 6 yd Ribban

Sep. 6th.
- 3½ yds tartan
¼ p gun powder
- 15 yd Ribban
- 4 yds fine tartan
- 4 yd Ditto
- 3 yd Broad black Ribban
- 2 yd Ditto
½ gun powder
- 2¼ Cambrick
- 3 yds Broad black Ribban
- 3 yds Red Ribban
- 6 yds gartar

Oct. 2.
- 3 yds fine Cambrick
¾ tartan red & white
- 6 yds red & bleu [?] Ribban
- 4½ best black Ribban
- ? Pound Rasons & Almonds

Blair, March 27, 1759
Bill for £11. 2. 0½
Recived the above in full of all Demands Preseding this Debt
[signed] Jean Murray

An excerpt from the book entitled, The Red & White Book of Menzies suggests the following: "The hose of the 42d Black Watch were of Clan Menzies tartan, 'red & white' check, worn in compliment of the Menzies originators."

The diamond pattern leg hose was usually a red and white check which was called cath dath (pr: kaa dah) - war pattern.

77th Foot
Alexander Grant, 77th Foot, had an account due with Peter Leith for his military uniform. Dated 24 January 1757. [NAS, GD248/83/3]. Leith may be the same man recorded as journeyman tailor in Edinburgh's South West Parish, Oct. 1754.

A list of accoutrements issued to the men of the 78th Regiment can be found here.

The article was last updated 13 June 2019.

"Army Clothiers Petition." Received by The Lords Commissioners of his Majesty's Treasury, March 1763, London, UK. TNA, T1/424/412-413.

Calcraft, John. Regulation of Cloathing for a Highland Regt. of Foot, c. 1757. James Grant of Ballindalloch papers, 1740-1819, Library of Congress, Washington, DC.

Calcraft, John. Discussion regarding the death of Galfridus Mann was extracted from a letter to Earl of Loudoun dated 7 Jan. 1757, contained in Vol. 1, Register of private letters of J[ohn] C[alcraft], Army Agent, to the officers in the army and others; 24 Oct. 1756 to 18 Jan. 1765; British Library (Western Manuscripts); Add. MS 17493.

A State of Clothing for a Highland Regiment at first rising, 1757. James Grant of Ballindalloch papers, 1740-1819, Library of Congress.

“British Linen Bank.” Lloyds Banking Group. Accessed 10 January 2019.

Menzies, D. P. The 'Red and White' Book of Menzies: The History of Clan Menzies and It's Chiefs. Glasgow, 1894.

Richards, Frederick B. The Black Watch at Ticonderoga. Fort Ticonderoga Museum Library, 1920. Lt. John Robertson to the West Indies.

Durie, Alastair J. The British Linen Company, 1745-1775. Scottish History Society, 1996. Internal company letter written to William Tod, 10 April 1755.

“Ancient Highland Dress.” Ancient Highland Dress: The Highlander Leg Hose | Scottish Tartans Authority, Accessed 10 January 2019.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019. 

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Letter from Colonel Simon Fraser, 2d Highland Battalion, to General Forbes, Feb. 25, 1758

Dear Sir

I hope you are Satisfied before now that I am not so much to blame as you Imagin'd with regard to the Returns but to prevent a poſsibility of mistake I send inclosed the Return for this Month, & have sent one also by this bearer to Genl. Webb.

The 35th, 44th, & 48th have kept the vests the drafts from our Regt. had on, the reason assigned is that those Regts. have no vests to give them, however that be, I fancy you will think it unreasonable that so many Men of our Regiment shoud go about without vests, while those Regts. wear the vests bought for our Men and paid for by me - the original price will not be an equivalent, because if those vests are not return'd, I must buy new ones at a leas'd rate than those cost at home, & yet perhaps those Regts. may grudge paying the Reginal price; I beg you may be so good to Advise me what I shoud do in this Matter, which I have mention'd to Genl. Webb, but without making any demand.

Serjt. Fraser was tried for the death of Corporal McKeye by the Superior Court yesterday, the indictment was laid for Murder, of which the Jury brought him in not guilty & the Court acquitted & dismissed him; I must do them the Justice to say that the Court & Jury behav'd with such moderation decency & propriety as Surprized me. The Colony of Connecticut & the 2d Highland Battalion are hand & glove & we are the only old countrymen they believe capable of performing great exploits, not but they hold themselves as the great Warriors, & suffer us only to follow longo intervallo.
My Lord preſs'd last Sunday in great health - your warm room was ready, but I own I was not sorry you did not apear for such a jaunt in rich weather coud hardly be Salutary.
                                                                                I am with great regard
                                                                                Dear Sir
                                                                                Your most obedt. & most 
                                                                                humble Servant
                                                                                S. Fraser

Cover sheet:
Stratford Febry 25th 1758

Col. Simon Fraser, "Letter of Col. Simon Fraser to Colonel Forbes, Adjutant General, at His House in the Broadway or at the Fort, New York." NAS, GD45-2-29, pp. 18-19. 

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2017.

Saturday, July 15, 2017

Accoutrements of the 78th Regiment of Foot, May 1758

Captain John Nairn's Journal, 78th Regiment, 1762Albeit nothing official has ever been located in describing exactly which tartan the 78th Regiment Highland Dress uniform consisted of, this author has discovered an accounting ledger among the personal papers of Major James Clephane, dated May 1758. The ledger's purpose was for tracking expenses for each soldier in his company, including accoutrements issued, and the monthly pay received. Considering the date of the ledger and the items listed, we believe these to be of initial government issue.

1. 1 - Pair Shoes
2. 1 - Napsack
3. 1 - Haversack
4. 1 - Cocade
5. 1 - Pair Garters & 1 Sett Buckles
6. 1- Kilt & Small Belt 
7. 2 - Cheq’d Shirt 
8. 1 - Turn Key Screw, Brush & Wire 
9. Proportion of a Cooks Frock 
10. Leather Frock

The major's sister, Betty Clephane [wife of the chief of Clan Rose], discussed some of these items in a 1757 letter to her brother, John, updating him on the recruiting efforts taking place: "We are already in such order, that we have our men received everyday with a stick on his shoulder and a good sack on his back, and a philibeg about his loup." Her jubilant thoughts expressly conveyed women were involved in the raising of the 78th Regiment.

3. Multiple men throughout the Major Clephane's Company are recorded as having received two haversacks; one prior to departing Kilraick, Inverness for North America, the second while en route at Cork, Ireland.
6. Some accounts lists small belt as pistle belt.
7. Issued by Major Clephane.
8. Used in maintaining and repairing the firelocks.
9. Each soldier was charged proportionally.
10. Only one soldier charged for this item; quite possibly the company blacksmith.

The Public Advertiser Newspaper
Thursday, February 3, 1757
Glasgow, Jan. 24. On Wednesday an Order was received from London, to provide 2400 pairs of shoes and also Shoulder-Belts for the two Highland Regiments now raising.

Order Books 
Saturday, 11 May 1762
"...Every soldier to be provided with a Brush weir, worm stopper, Turn key screw & rag for his arms, a hammer Stale [?] & flint case of proper Leather never to be taken off except when under arms, or on duty, 4 good shirts & stocks, one night cape, an Ivory & horn come for the hair, Black ball & Shoe Brushes, the men for guard allways to be well sheav'd have Clean shirts their hair ty'd behind & Clubb'd. Their arms very clean shoulder belts & Cartridge Boxes well Blacked, & shoulder Belt Buckles Brisk, every soldier whether he is on duty or not to have his face hands & knees well wash'd his hair well com'd cut short on the top of his head & his locks short, his Bonnet proper so as to reach his Brues before, & as high as possible behind with the Cockard fix'd so as the haf of it may stand upright above the Bonnet, his plaid never to be worn but kelted, the fillibeg or little kelt to be allways worn in summer or harvest except when upon duty."

See the article titled Clothing for the Highland Regiments, 1757 for a discussion on regimental clothing, including the 42nd, 77th and 78th Regiment of Foot.

Major James Clephane, "Military Accounts at Halifax, 1758." NAS GD125-34-5.

Captain John Nairne, "Order Books, 1762." LAC, R5991-0-3-E, MG23-GIII 23.

Betty Clephane, "Letter to 'Dear Brother', 1757." NAS GD125-22-2, pp. 5-7.

© Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.