Showing posts with label Recruiting. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Recruiting. Show all posts

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Instructions for Draughting of Foot Guards, Jan. 1757

Draughting Foot Guards for the 78th Regiment of Foot, 1757
During the early recruitment of soldiers for both the newly established Highland Battalions [Colonel Montgomery's and Colonel Fraser's Regiments], leadership requested senior non-commissioned officers [serjeants and corporals] from those that were already established. Veteran soldiers were highly sought after for their ability to not only successfully train the new recruits, but it was also required they could speak the Scottish Gaelic Highland language, to be able to pass down orders from the senior officers.

A transcription of Lord Barrington's letter to the field commanders addressing these requirements is as follows.

War Office 25 Janry 1757

Sir
          The King having been pleased to direct two Highland Battalions to be forthwith raised to serve in North America and Commanded by Lieut. Col. Montgomery and Lieut. Col. Fraser and it being requested by the said Lieut. Colonels that the Serjeants and Corporals for the said Battalions should be taken from Corps, where Men shall be found qualified for such Non Commiss Officers I am therefore to acquaint you it is His Majesty's Pleasure that you will cause Twenty five men to be draughted from the Regiments of Foot Guards under your Command who can speak the Highland Language Ten of whom are to be turned over to Lieut Col. Montgomery's Battalion and the remaining fifteen to Lieut. Col. Fraser's Battalion which Men are to be Draughted with their own consent and approved of by the said Lieut. Col.s of Officers appointed for that Service in order to their being Sergts. or Corporals as the said Lieut Colonels shall think proper For each of whom the sum of Five pounds is to be paid by the said Battalions receiving them, to your Regt., but care is to be taken that none above the degree of a Corporal is to be draughted.  I am
                                                               Sir     &c.
                                                                                          Barrington
Field Officer in Staff waiting
for the three Regts. of Foot Guards

                                    Guards . . . . 10 . . . . 15 . . . . 25

Like letters of the same date to the following Colonels or Officers Commanding their respective Regiments.

Earl of Homes
Montgomery's:  6
Frasers:  4
Total:  10

Genl. Anstruther's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  5
Total:  9

Genl. Holmes's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  -
Total:  4

Leighton's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  6
Total:  10

Lord Robert Manners's
Montgomery's:  4
Fraser's:  -
Total:  4

Lambton's
Montgomery's:  2
Fraser's:  6
Total:  8

Lord Charles Manners's
Montgomery's:  6
Fraser's:  -
Total:  6

Lord Loudouns
Montgomery's:  -
Fraser's:  4
Total:  4

Total:
Montgomery's:  40
Fraser's:  40

Source:
War Office Records: Out Letters: Secretary at War. General Letters, Dec. 1756 - Apr. 1757. LAC, W.O. 4, vol. 53 (Selections), pp. 102-3.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2019.

Saturday, February 3, 2018

Colonel Simon Fraser's Recruits

Alexander Fraser [1860-1936], a native of Inverness-shire, who was the first Archivist of Ontario [1903-35], was an acknowledged authority on Scottish history in general and Fraser history in particular. In 1934 he advised a descendant of Malcolm Fraser of Mount Murray that the Rev. Dr. Archibald MacDonald - then quite an old man - had written a short history of the Lords of Lovat. In The Old Lords of Lovat and Beaufort [1934], Dr. MacDonald included the muster roll of 71 recruits raised in 1757 for Colonel Simon Fraser, by James Fraser of Belladrum, as well as extracts of correspondence between Belladrum and Bailie James Fraser, merchant, Inverness, which shed some light on Belladrum's involvement with the Fraser Highlanders. The following except and subsequent soldiers' muster roll originally appeared as part of that publication.

“...In connection with the enlistment of men for the Fraser Highlanders, the following roll of 71 recruits was raised in 1757 by James Fraser of Belladrum, and preserved among the Belladrum papers. The men were drawn chiefly from the district of Inverness, and their interest lies to some extent in the fact that none of them seem to measure more than 5 feet 9-1/2 inches in height.” 

1757, --- Roll of Men Enlisted for the Honble Coll Fraser's Regimt by Jas. Fraser.

Jan 15:
Name: Alex Cameron, Butcher, Invs
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 21
Dn: 1st

Jan 17:
Jno MacKenzie, Do
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 21
Dn: 3d

Jas MacKenzie, Do
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 32
Dn: 3d

Hugh Fraser, Do
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 27
Dn: 3d

Jan 18:
Jno Fraser, Weaver, Do
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 21
Dn: 3d

Jno Grant, Duthel
Size: 5: 9
Age: 31
Dn: 1st

Jan 19:
Willm Fraser, Hyrer, Invs
Size: 5: 5-1/2
Age: 33
Dn: 1st

Jan 20
Thos Campbell, Breakachie
Size: 5: 5-1/2
Age: 28
Dn: 3d

Jan 21
Jno McDonald, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 19
Dn: 3d

Jno McDonald, Pyper, Kinchyle
Size: 5: 3
Age: 21
Dn: 2d

Walter Simson, Kings, Milns
Size: 5: 5-1/4
Age: 19

Jan 24
Wm Mack Queen, Daviot
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 18
Dn: 3d

Jno MacKenzie, from Urray
Size: 5: 3
Age 18
Dn: 3d

Jan 25
Wm Williamson, Castlehill
Size: 5: 5-1/2
Age: 18

Collin McDonald, Invs
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 30
Dn: 3d

Jno Shaw, Weaver, Kings, Milns
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 19

Jan 26:
Alexr Vauss, Kings, Milns
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 27
Dn: 2d

John Fraser, Robbie, Invs
Size: 5: 2-1/2
Age, 18

Jan 27
Thomas Fraser, Baker, Do
Size: 5: 2-1/2
Age: 15

Alexr Fraser, Do, Do
Size: 5: 1
Age: 16

Dun McTavish, Aberaider
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 23
Dn: 3d

Rod McKenzie, Aberaider
Size: 5: 3-3/4
Age: 18

Angus McArthur, Troternish
Size: 5: 6-1/4
Age: 36
Dn: 3d

Jno Robertson, Bewlie
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 20
Dn: 3d

Jan 28:
Don Fraser, McWilliam, Moniack
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 20
Dn: 3d

Alexr Cameron, Culchuniack
Size: 5: 3-3/4
Age: 19
Dn: 1st

Alexr Vauss, Invs
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 29
Dn: 2d

Geo McKenzie, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 9
Age: 20
Dn: 1st

Jan 29:
Jno McLeod, Invs
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 18
Dn: 3d

Jan 31:
Alexr Baillie, Invs
Size: 5: 4-1/4
Age: 26
Dn: 3d

Simon Fraser, Culduthell
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 30
Dn: 3d

Jno Fraser, Muirtown
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 18
Dn: 1st

Alexr MackLeod, Joyner
Size: 5: 8
Age: 28
Dn: 1st

Feb 1
Don Cameron. Glenstrafarer
Size: 5: 7
Age: 25
Dn: 1st

Feb 2:
Don Fraser, Croy
Size: 5: 7-1/2
Age: 21
Dn: 1st

Doug McDonald, Invs
Size: 5: 3
Age: 19
Dn: 3d

No. 37

Feb 2:
Archibald Mack Queen, Moy
Size: 5: 7
Age: 38
Dn: 3d

Jany 28:
John Gordon, Duthel
Size: 5: 3
Age: 21

Feb 5:
Alex Munro, Duthel
Size: 5: 3-3/4
Age: 17
Dn: 3d

Feb 7:
Alexr Mackay, Kingussie
Size: 5: 5-1/4
Age: 31
Dn: 4d

Dun McKenzie, Petty
Size: 5: 3-1/4
Age: 18

Jno Fraser, Dunain
Size: 5: 3
Age: 18

Dun Munro, Culkaiback
Size: 5: 5
Age: 18

Feb 9:
Willm Fraser, Cantra
Size: 5: 5-3/4
Age: 20
Dn: 1st

Feb 10:
Andw Mack Lean, Davochgarnoch
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 19

Feb 11:
Alexr Grigor, Croy
Size: 5: 3
Age: 17

Neil Mackleod, Invs
Size: 5: 4
Age: 34

Feb 12:
Jno McDonald senr, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 3-1/2
Age: 29
Dn: 3d

Feb 14:
Alex Mackenzie, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 3
Age: 34

Feb 15:
Alex Munro, Weaver, Invs
Size: 5: 9
Age: 22
Dn: 2d

Feb 18:
Murdoch Mackenzie, Do
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 39
Dn: 4d

Feb 3:
James Mackdonald, Do
Size: 5: 1-1/2
Age:

Alex Fraser, Joyner
Size: 5: 1-1/2
Age:
Dn: 2d

Feb 15:
Jno Mack, Crae
Size: 5: 2
Age: 18

Feb 16:
Donald Munro
Size: 5: 2-1/2
Age: 20

Mar 1:
Alexr Fraser, serjeant
Size: 5: 6
Age: 23

Mar 3:
Donald McPherson,
Size: 5: 5
Age: 38

James Glass
Size: 5: 2
Age: 18

Donald McIntosh
Size: 5: 2
Age 17

Mar 9:
Donald Cameron, K's, Milne
Size: 5: 3
Age: 19
Dn: 4th

Feb 24:
Farquhar McGilvray, Moy
Size: 5: 4
Age: 28

Mar 2:
James Gregory
Size: 5: 9
Age: 40
Dn: 3d

Mar 11:
John Fraser, Wright, Culloden
Size: 5: 7-1/2
Age: 40
Dn: 2d

James Forsyth, Croy
Size: 5: 4
Age: 29

Mar 14:
John McDonald, Tobacconist
Size: 5: 6-1/2
Age: 19
Dn: 2d

Kenneth Mackenzie, Petty
Size: 5: 5
Age: 19
Dn: 2d

John Fraser, Culloden, 17 years old
Size: 5: 4-3/4
Age: 37

Mar 19:
Jno Shaw, Edenkilie
Size: 5: 8-3/4
Age: 25
Dn: 3d

Angus McDonell, serj, 26 Janry
Size: 5: 9-1/2
Age: 24
Dn: 4th

No. 70

Mar 29:
Neil Mack Lean, Troternish, Culloden
Size: 5: 4-1/2
Age: 19

Ap 2:
Thomas Fraser, Kinmylies
Size: 5: 6-1/4
Age: 27

Abbreviations:
Dn: Division
Do: Ditto

James Fraser of Belladrum was appointed lieutenant in Col. Fraser's regiment on 4 January 1757 and carried with the colonel on the official Army Lists through 1760, where he is listed as "resigns" from the regiment. He reappears as captain in the 87th Regiment of Foot [or Highland Volunteers, Germany] in 1761, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Murray Keith.

Some historians have asserted these 71 recruits never made it to North America with the main body of Fraser's men and were sent to fight with Belladrum in Germany in 1759. Those claims, however, cannot be substantiated. Serjeants Alexander Fraser [March 1] and Angus McDonell [March 19] both appear with the 78th Regiment on the list of 170 Soldiers Discharged in North America; the former in Colonel Fraser's Company, the latter in Captain Alexander McLeod's Company. Additional sources also describe the original recruits of the 87th Foot as a nucleus of drafts from Lord Murray's supernumeraries of the 42nd Foot, the Black Watch

Because such a limited amount of paperwork relating to the original recruitment of soldiers for Fraser's 78th Highlanders has survived, this document could prove quite valuable in identifying men from the regiment thought to have ancestral roots in northern Scotland.

A check of the records of the Fraser of Belladrum papers at the National Library of Scotland indicates the absence of this original muster roll from the collection; nor can it be confirmed as being held in private hands.

Sources:
Bulloch, John Malcolm. Territorial Soldiering in the North-East of Scotland during 1759-1814 [Aberdeen, 1914].

Marie Fraser, "The Old 78th Regiment of Foot." Clan Fraser Society of Canada, 2001.

Kronoskaf. Origin and History of the 87th Foot. http://www.kronoskaf.com/syw/index.php?title=87th_Foot.

MacDonald, Archibald, Reverend. The Old Lords of Lovat and Beaufort [Northern Counties Newspaper and Publishing, 1934].

War Office Records. List of General and Field Officers as they Rank in the Army, 1757-1761 [National Archives, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, U.K.]

"Inventory of Family papers of Fraser of Belladrum." NAS, GB233/Acc.11244.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Monday, September 18, 2017

Colonel Simon Fraser's Letters to Lord Murray


The Scottish Highlanders who served in North America were recruited by a variety of methods, but records do indicate most were volunteers. Economic depression swarmed their homelands, and the thoughts of prosperity and securing a better livelihood in the new world certainly would have contributed to each man's decision to enlist. Recruiters scoured the countryside, some concentrating their efforts to the immediate lands around their estates, while others traveled the length of Aberdeen to "make out their recruits." With competition to enlist men coming from Colonel Montgomery of the First Highland Battalion, recruiting was at a premium from a country sorely depleted in able-bodied men. The Recruiting Act of 1756-57 specified commissioners and their representatives may only enlist men aged 17-45; fit to serve His Majesty; free from ruptures and distemper; and non-Papists. Albeit there are no records available indicating recruiting officers compelled men in Scotland to sign and swear to a religious certificate, records do indicate this was a requirement at that time throughout Ireland.

On February 7, 1757, Simon Fraser had personally visited the offices of the Board in Edinburgh, to impress and extol the need for rapid recruitment. He, and others found that traveling the country securing men for the regiment simply came with the territory, -- it was part of the job. In a letter to his brother dated April 8, 1757, Major James Clephane, second in command, described the exhausting need to continuously oversee the recruiting efforts across Scotland for his personal company.

"My dear johnie,

No doubt you'll be much surprised that, till now, you have had no letter from me ever since I came to this place, which is now 20 days, but I'm persuaded you'll give great allowance for my silence, when I tell you that till yesterday I have not been 24 hours at one time here; sometimes one day at Inverness, next day return here, and a third at Nairn, and so on alternately, and often reviewing my recruits, and Kilraick and I engaging good men and dismissing worse."

Hon. Simon Fraser to Mr. Murray of Strowan
Dunkeld, 19th Feb. 1757.

Dr Sir, -- I have seen some men that are brought in here by a Constable, some of whom say they have had money for Col : Montgomery, & one in particular was inclinable to prefer enlisting wt. me to any other. As I suppose they came here by the Duke’s order, I would not attempt doing any thing without his Grace’s permission. At same time, as his Grace was so good as to say he wou’d not discountenance my recruiting, if any of the men prefer enlisting wt. me to going elsewhere, I flatter myself His Grace will have no objection to my getting any who are still unengaged, & make that choice. The man I mentioned to have already made it, had received no money & was perfectly disengaged, but I wou’d do nothing wt. him without asking his Grace.

Pardon this trouble. I am just setting out. God bless you, & do me the justice to believe me very much your faithful servt.

S. FRASER.

Colonel Fraser departed Dunkeld, Perthshire on February 19, 1757, after posting his letter to Mr. Murray, and appears to have quartered at Moulinearn Inn, about three miles southwest of Ballyoukan, where he sends a second letter, postmarked the same day. 

Hon. Simon Fraser to Mr. Murray of Strowan
Mulenairn, Satud. night, 19 Feb. 1757.

Dr Sr, -- When you did me the honor to call this afternoon, the number of fiddle faddle letters I had just been writing had quite jumbled my Judgement, & it was only upon the road that I began to consider that you said the men I saw were sent for by my Lord Duke for Coll. Montgomery. I had been informed they were impressed to fill up the quota of the county, & seeing a constable with them made me think it was so, & the men themselves thought so. But I suppose the case is that one or two of them may be wanted for that, and the Duke means to make use of it to give the rest to Coll. Montgomery. If I had understood that to be the case when I saw them, I should have not interfered so far as to ask one of them to make his choice of me, & I beg to recall any demand I made of that sort. If they are men the Duke intended & sent for to be given to Col. Montgomery, I wou’d not presume to interfere wt. his Grace’s intentions so far as to take them if they came out and offered themselves, & I shall be obliged to you if you’l do me the honor to present my complts. To His Grace, and tell him this, & that when I took the liberty to send to you before I took them to be impressed men for the county.

I beg leave to offer my complts. To the Dutches & Lady Charlotte. Pray don’t be angry wt. me for this trouble, but believe me wt. great regard,

Dr Sir,
Yr most obt. & hult. Servt.

My paper & ink are very bad, but the place offers no better.

S. FRASER.

Note: Murray, of Strowan, is Lord George Murray (1694-1760), a Scottish Jacobite general most noted for his 1745 campaign under Bonnie Prince Charlie in England. In 1728, he married Amelia, daughter, and heiress of James Murray of Strowan and Glencarse and had five children, Lady Charlotte being the fourth child, second daughter.

Sources:
Atholl, John James Hugh Henry Stewart-Murray, et al. Chronicles of the Atholl and Tullibardine families [Edinburgh, 1908].

William Congreve. "Letter to Wilmot indicating not one of the recruits were papists or had falsely signed the religious certificates." Dated 10 March 1757. PRO Northern Ireland, T3019/3122.

Mackillop, Andrew. Military recruiting in the Scottish Highlands 1739-1815: Col. Fraser in Edinburgh, February 7, 1757 [September 1995].

H. Rose and Lachlan Shaw. A genealogical deduction of the family of Rose of Kilravock: with illustrative documents from the family papers, and notes [Edinburgh, 1848].

“Lord George Murray (General).” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 29 Aug. 2017, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lord_George_Murray_(general). Accessed 17 Sept. 2017.

© Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2017. 

Friday, September 15, 2017

The Raising of the Highland Regiments in 1757

In his eloquent survey of the career of the elder Pitt Lord Stanhope says---

     Was it not he who devised that lofty and generous scheme for removing the disaffection of the Highlanders by enlisting them in regiments for the service of the Crown? Those minds which Culloden could not subdue at once yielded to his confidence; by trusting he reclaimed them; by putting arms into their hands he converted mutinous subjects into loyal soldiers.

And he afterwards quotes Pitt's own words, spoken a few months before his death.

     I remember how I employed the very rebels in the service and defence of their country. They were reclaimed by this means; they fought our battles; they cheerfully bled in defence of those liberties which they had attempted to overthrow but a few years before.

Whether the final pacification of the Highlands was mainly due to this policy of trust, or to that harsher policy which, by exiling the chiefs, gradually loosened the tie between them and their clans, is perhaps open to question. At any rate the raising of the Highland regiments was a bold and wise measure, for which Pitt deserves credit. But the credit is not due to him exclusively, nor did the idea originate with him. The needs of America, not of Scotland, gave birth to it.

Eight years before, the duke of Bedford had proposed to send out Highlanders to Nova Scotia as settlers, and the duke of Cumberland had promised to support this scheme, 'as it is much to be wished that these people may be disposed of in such a manner as to be of service to the government, instead of a detriment to it.' And in 1751 Wolfe, who was at that time commanding a regiment in Scotland, wrote to a brother officer in Nova Scotia that he should imagine two or three independent companies of Highlanders would be found useful in the desultory frontier warfare which was then going on: 'they are hardly, intrepid, accustomed to a rough country, and no great mischief if they fall.'

Braddock's disaster in 1755, and the French reinforcements sent to Canada in the early part of the following year, made it an urgent matter to send out British reinforcements. But it was not easy to find them. The standing army of Great Britain, normally 19,000, had been raised to 34,000 men; but this was a little more than one-fifth of that of France. England was threatened with invasion, and when Hessians and Hanoverians to the number of 19,000 were brought over to guard it they had to be sent back to Germany because of the popular outcry, of which Pitt took the lead. The Mediterranean garrisons could not spare men to reinforce it, and it was driven to capitulate.

Lord Loudoun, who had been very useful in the Highlands at the time of the rebellion, was sent to America to take the chief command; but only two weak battalions accompanied him. One of these was the Black Watch, the earliest Highland regiment, which had been formed out of independent companies in 1739. So many Highland recruits were set out to join it that in a few months' time it numbered 1,300 men. In spite of the opposition of Pitt and his friends, money was voted for a regiment of four battalions to be raised in America from Swiss and German protestants settled in Pennsylvania and New York. One-third of the commissions were given to officers of those nationalities. This regiment, at first known as the Royal American, is now the King's Royal Rifle Corps, or 60th Rifles.

After various acts of hostility on both sides, war was declared between England and France in May 1756. In the course of that month a plan for carrying on the war was submitted to the duke of Cumberland. It proposed an increase in the establishment of British regiments, and the procuring of some German regiments for service in America, and added, 'Two regiments, a thousand men in a corps, may be raised in the north of Scotland for the said service and on the same terms. No men in this island are better qualified for the American war than the Scots Highlanders.' It further suggested that the Scots regiments in the Dutch service should be recalled, and 2,000 Protestants raised in the north of Ireland.

Pitt was sworn as principal secretary of state on 4 Dec., and the duke soon afterwards sent him by Lord Albemarle the plan described above. As regards the Highlanders, the matter was quickly settled, for in the course of that month the duke wrote the following letter, marked 'Most private,' to Lord Loudoun:---

St. James De 23d 1756.
     My Lord Loudoun,--- I write this private letter to you to assure you of the thorough satisfaction your conduct has given me, and will not fail to support you to the utmost of my power through the many difficulties you find in the executing of your orders, and in opposition to the public service. Nothing can be worse than our situation here at home, without any plan, or even a desire to have one, great numbers talked of to be sent you, but without any consideration of how, and from whence, without considering what they should carry with them. But that you may know what can be done for you, I write in my own Hand, trusting to your Honour, that you will burn this as soon as read.
     The King will spare you five old Battalions from Europe and two thousand new raised Highlanders, which will make 6,000 men, officers included: and I will send a proper train of artillery with them. Prepare your own plan for one army up the St. Lawrence River, and for the other to keep the enemy in check from where your army now is. I will send you my thoughts more fully with a plan of mine for your operations, which you shall be left at liberty, either to adopt, in part, or not at all, as you shall find it proper from your better information. I don't doubt a moment of your burning this letter, so don't answer it, but send your plan and thoughts without taking any notice of this most private letter. I remain very sincerely your most affectionate Friend.

The 2,000 Highlanders here referred to were to form two battalions, to be raised respectively by Archibald Montgomery, afterwards the earl of Eglinton, and Simon Fraser, master of Lovat. Montgomery was a major of Lord Robert Manners's regiment (88th Foot), but Fraser was in a different position and has never held the king's commission. His father, Lord Lovat, had made him join the Jacobite army in 1746 at the head of his clan. He had afterwards received a pardon, and become an advocate (as readers of 'Catriona' may remember). He now applied to be allowed to raise a regiment, and was supported by the duke of Argyle, who told the government that under no other person would the clan of Fraser enlist.

Among the Cumberland Papers at Windsor there is a list of officers from Fraser's regiment, endorsed, 'These papers delivered to me by the Duke of Argyle on 2d Jan. 1757, and approved the next day by the King. [Initialed] W.' Out of a total of thirty-nine officers thirteen are Frasers, and there is a note to that
     Mr Fraser being to raise so great a number of men, it is necessary to recommend many gentleman of the name of Fraser who have not been in the service before, but who from their connections and interest in the country can raise most men.

The two majors in this list are Campbells, but one of them was afterwards appointed to Montgomery's regiment.

The duke of Newcastle, whom Pitt had driven out of office, watched the measures of the new minitsry with the disapproval which was to be expected. On 4 Jan. 1757 he wrote to Lord hardwicke about the reinforcements for America---
     The Duke will not part with more than 4 regiments from hence, the new lord-lieutenant will spare only 1,000 from thence, and the old governor of Scotland cannot muster up above 2,000 of his Highland Friends, which altogether will not amount to much above 6,000 men. Mr. Pitt insists upon 8,000.
Hardewick replied on the 7th---

     I find this measure of raising 2,000 Highlanders alarms many of the best affected, particularly the making councillor Fraser colonel of one of the Battalions. . . . Nothing could more affectually break in upon the plan which has been pursuing for that country, ever since the last Rebillion, and I dare say the scheme is to put an end to it.
Two days later Newcastle wrote again---
     I most entirely disapprove the method of their Highland regiments. The Duke, I hear, disapproves and submits. It is wholly the duke of Argyle.

There seems to be nothing to bear out the statement that the duke of Cumberland disapproved the raising of these regiments. The fact that Henry Fox supported the measure in the house of commons is an indication to the contrary. The situation is pretty clear. Pitt was bent on vigorous action in America, but his hand were to some extent tied by his opposition to the employment of foreign soldiers. Whether or not he welcomed the scheme at that time as a message of peace to Scotland, it was practically indispensable for waging war in America. The king and the duke, as captain-general, were unwilling to denude the country of troops, especially as they cherished a hole that some British regiments would join the army which was to be formed for the defence of Hanover. Highlanders had fought under the duke at Fontenoy, and against him at Culloden, and he knew their value. As already mentioned, the Black Watch had been sent to America before Pitt became a minister. The opinions of Argyle and Loudoun, Campbells both, would be likely to weigh with him, especially when they furnished a means of reconciling his views with those of the imperious minister.

Recruits came in so freely that the establishment of the two regiments increased. They were sent to America in a few months. Montgomery's regiment served under Forbes in the successful expedition against Fort Duquense (where Braddock had met with disaster), while Fraser's took part in the capture of Louisbourg and Quebec, and won the praise of Wolfe. The regiments were brought into the line as the 77th and 78th respectively, but were disbanded at the peace of 1763, the men receiving grants of land in America.
E.M. Lloyd.


Source:
Lloyd, E.M. The Raising of the Highland Regiments [The English Historical Review, Vol. 17, No. 67, pp. 466-69, London, 1902].

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2017.  

Saturday, August 12, 2017

Letter from Major Clephane, Second Highland Battalion, to the Doctor, 1757

The 78th Regiment of Foot, 1757-1763
Kilraick, April 8, 1757

My dear Johnie,

No doubt that you will be much surprised that, till now, you have had no letter from me ever since I came to this place, which is not 20 days, but I’m persuaded you’ll give great allowance for my silence, when I tell you that till yesterday I have not been 24 hours at one time here; sometimes one day at Inverness, next day return here, and a third day at Nairn, and so on alternately, often reviewing my recruits, and Kilraick and I engaging good men and dismissing worse. In short, this has been my life all this while. Add to all this a crowd of company always in the old Castle, under pretence, forsooth, of seeing me, which, God knows, is only a pretence in many; but no more of that. Now I come to tell you, which I well know will give equal pleasure to you as to me, that I have at last sent off for Glasgow 124 recruits along with Colonel Fraser’s company (our two companies making the first division of the battalion,) and yesterday I sent off six men more to go with the last division from Inverness, which leaves that to-day, so that I hope the whole battalion will be at Glasgow by the 19th or 20th of this month. I have given orders that the nine or ten men I have in Angus and Perthshire shall join my company at Crieff, to go along with them to Glasgow. With this great number of men which I have got (which, by the by, have been levied altogether by my worthy friend Kilraick, and a few others, without the assistance of any one officer or sergeant belonging to Colonel Fraser’s battalion,) I dare assure you that I shall be able, when I come to Glasgow, to make out a company of 110 or 112 men, as good hearty young fellows as are to be seen in many regiments, and all as willingly and cheerfully engaged as is possible any men to be, for not one of them ever confined, and not one deserted while here, in which I glory and have great joy. Upon my arrival at Edinburgh, and finding there, my letters from Kilraick, of his surprising success for me, I was obliged to put a stop to my friends recruiting for me in Angus and Perthshire, otherwise my number of men would have run too great, and the expense too high, which God knows, are to high already for my poor purse, but in that there is no help, I rather chose to have men than money. Capt. Arthur Rose, Kilraick’s uncle, who, you know, is lieutenant in the Dutch service, was so kind and obliging as to take the charge and trouble to conduct my company to Glasgow, and indeed he was a most fit person for it, as being well acquainted with the humours and genius of every one recruit, as having been among them daily and hourly ever since the recruiting began here, and in whom all of them has great confidence; and he was most assiduous in exercising them as far as he could while here. In short, dear Johnie, he has been of infinite service and use to me in all this affair. And I think I may very safely affirm, that he will turn out a very good officer and he would rather almost go to hell than be obliged to return to Holland again, and that he would willingly accept of a lieutenancy among us, I dare assure you of. For God’s sake, try what you can do for him that way. This family are all well, and minds you often with much affection. How soon as I am settled at Glasgow, I shall be more particular about them than I can be here, for I am in a continued hurry with one of t’other calling for me. The bell rings for dinner, and the post goes off at 4 o’clock. God bless and reward you, shall ever be the earnest prayers of,

My dear Brother,
                        Your most affectionate and obliged Brother
                    James Clephane.


The Doctor succeeded in his endeavour, and Arthur Rose’s name is found as lieutenant of one of the three additional companies of Lieutenant-Colonel Simon Fraser’s regiment, with instructions for raising his quota of men, dated July 16th 1757. He writes from Quebec on the 17th July 1760, to his grand-nephew, announcing his being wounded - "I am sorry I can't accompany you with the fiddle any more, my left hand being rendered useless... The many battles, sieges, and skirmishes we have had, fell heavier on us that any other regiment; having thirteen officers killed between Luisburg and Quebec, and a great number of men among whom is poor Sandie Rose of Little-town. But I hope this summer will put an end to any more fighting. I assure you, dear Hugh, my curiosity that way is entirely satisfied... If there is a peace, I hope soon to be with you, and see you kill some muir-fowl on the muirs about Culmoney, or a fox in the mickle park or birken ward. I shall grow melancholy if I continue in this strain, considering the prodigious distance I am from these happy places."

After the Doctor's death, the Major wanted the encouragement and support which had hitherto sustained him. He sold out of the army in 1760; and from thenceforward Kilravock was his common residence. He was fondly attached to his sister and her children. The easy social life of the castle suited him. He kept up a lazy correspondence with a few old brother officers, and devoted some energy to the care and putting out in the world of two grand-nephews, Harry and James Malcolm, the sons of Captain Henry Malcolm, who were bred from children under the kind nursing of good Betty Clephane, and one of who lived to repay to her and her daughter some part of his obligations. Harry Malcolm went a cadet to India in 1768. Mrs. Rose's letter speak of him as successively Secretary to the Commander-in-Chief and Adjutant-General at Madras.

The first two companies of soldiers would depart Kilravock, Inverness, Scotland for Glasgow on March 31, 1757.

Source:
Rose, H., and Lachlan Shaw. A genealogical deduction of the family of Rose of Kilravock: with illustrative documents from the family papers, and notes [Edinburgh, 1848].

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2017. 

Thursday, July 27, 2017

Extract of Letter from Lord Breadalbane to John Campbell of Barcaldine, Feb. 1757

The 78th Regiment of Foot, 1757-1763
London, 19 Feby. 1757

Sir, 

I have now before me your letters of the 30th past and the 6th and 10th inst. I hope the Major is with you before now. I'm glad to hear his Company is in such forwardness. I wrote long ago to Achalader to help him what he could, and I wrote the same two posts ago to Carwhin. I have heard (and also believ it is true) that the D. of Ar. had insisted that no men should be raised in his countrey. I was also told that I had declared the same as to Breadalbane: I did indeed say that I believed few men would be got in Breadalbane because I had discouraged idle people, and most men there are employed; and indeed I would not chuse to have the country stript of men, so as to be defenceless in case of any future troubles, which I hope will never happen, but I cannot forget the year 1745.

I heard it said a fortnight ago that Major Clephane had raised 70 men in four days: and that Capt. Campbell (brother of Capt. Dougal) had got 70 men in Glasgow. I am curious to know if it is true.

The significance of this [extract] letter cannot be overstated; this is the first instance where we've identified the possibility of recruiting efforts taking place in the Glasgow area. The possibility of local surrounding townsmen being sent to Glasgow waiting for the remaining companies of the regiment to arrive from the north must also be considered.

Major James Clephane was appointed senior Major in Fraser's Highlanders, commission dated 5th January 1757: he was probably recruiting in anticipation of that regiment being raised 1400 strong. The Hon. Simon Fraser of Lovat raised 800 men in a few weeks; and others, including the officers of the regiment, added more than 700, so that they actually landed at Halifax in America in August 1757.

The Capt. Campbell, brother of Capt. Dougal, mentioned may be Capt. John C. of Ballimore, appointed to the same regiment on the same date. Archibald Campbell, son of Glenlyon, was one of the Lieutenants. He was wounded at The Battle on the Plains of Abraham, 1759.
 
Source:
Gaelic Society. Transactions of the Gaelic Society of Inverness, 1898-99, Vol. XXIII [Inverness, 1902].

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2017.

Saturday, May 27, 2017

Recruitment

One question most often asked by genealogists is, where they can obtain a roster of soldiers, recruited in Scotland, who served with Fraser's Highlanders [originally numbered 2nd Highland Battalion] in Canada during the Seven Years' War, 1757-63. 

At the outset, the chances of identifying your ancestor as a soldier from the regiment are slim, but not entirely impossible. Officer biographies are much more common and often contain genealogical data that we're able to connect with, whereas the scarcity of records for non-commissioned officers [serjeants, corporals, and private men] makes identification more difficult. And it's because of the latter that we're forced to seek additional records for clues.

In the case of our ancestor, William Alexander Campbell [Marie Josephte Chartier,] the clue came in the form of a private bill of sale William had notarized in Saint Vallier, Quebec, Canada, in 1793, 30 years after the conclusion of the war. Located within the original instrument from 1761 was an official endorsement from Jacques [James] Abercrombie, Major, 78 Regt. Researchers for well over 100 years had speculated William was a private soldier from the regiment based on oral family history, and it was not until early 2017 that we would finally uncover the proof buried in old notarial records located at the Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec.

This is just one example of the need to look past standard military and regimental records available in potentially identifying your relative. It also underscores the value of careful and thorough research and documentation in tracing that elusive ancestor who may have originally been recruited in Scotland, and later settled in Canada after the disbandment of the old 78th Regiment or returned home in 1763.

A word of caution! Evidence exists that a very small percentage of augments and/or draft recruits from North America may have supplemented the Regiment as losses were incurred between 1757-63, though, most likely extremely low in numbers. Therefore, as previously mentioned, careful research and due diligence is required in ensuring your soldier was of Scottish or American ancestry.

Enlistment Requirements
Specific requirements for enlistment were laid out by the British Government in the official Recruiting Act, 1756-57 as follows:

“...Provided always, that no person shall be inlisted by the said Commissioners by virtue of the Act, who is not such Able-bodied Man as is fit to serve his Majesty, and is free from Ruptures and every other Distemper, or bodily Weakness or Infirmity, which may render him unfoit to perform the Duty of a Soldier; and that no Man be inlisted for his Majesty’s Service by virtue of this Act, who shall appear in the Opinion of the Commissioners, or Officer or Officers appointed to receive the impressed Men, to be under the Age of Seventeen years, or above the Age of forty five years, or a known Papist, or who shall be under the Size of five feet four inches without Shoes.”
And while no evidence has been uncovered requiring Scottish Highlanders' swear to their religious affiliations, evidence is available to support the signing of religious certificates for some British and Irish troops of the same time period.

Enlistment Contract

These do certify that          Born in the Parish of
County of           Aged          Years came before 
me and declar'd that he had Voluntarly and of his own free will
enlisted himself to serve his Majesty King George as a Soldier
in Major James Clephane's Company of Lieut Colonel Fraser's
Second Battalion of Highlanders: that he had received the en=
=listing Money agreed on, and had no impediment to Render
him unfit for the Service. Accordingly he had the Articles
of War Read to him, and took the Oath to Majesty as by Law
directed

Second Battalion of Highlanders Enlistment Contract, 1757
Second Battalion of Highlanders enlistment contract, 1757
Recruits at Dundee for Major Clephane's Company
If your ancestor was recruited to the company of Major James Clephane of the 78th, who hired a crimp [professional recruiter] named John Strachan to recruit near Dundee, Scotland, some of these papers have been preserved and show the names of recruits, ages, birthplace, occupation, etc., as follows:

Alexander Bell, 19 years, 5'3" enlisted in Dundee 18 February 1757, born in Kirriemuir, Angus, a laborer, fresh complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes, round visage.

Alexander Findlay, 17 years, 5'3" enlisted in Dundee 19 February 1757, born in Monifieth, Angus, a laborer, swarthy complexion, black eyes, black hair, round visage.

Peter Moody, 17 years, 5'1" enlisted in Dundee 20 February 1757, born in Glamis, Angus, a laborer, fresh complexion, black hair, hazel eyes, long visage.

William McKenzie, 17 years, 5'2", enlisted in Dundee 20 February 1757, born in Kingoldrum, Angus, a weaver, fresh complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, long visage.

William Fife, 18 years, 5'2" enlisted in Dundee 21 February 1757, born in Kirriemuir, Angus, a weaver, fresh complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes, long visage.

George Wright, 21 years, 5'5" enlisted in Forfar 24 February 1757, born in Ruthven, Angus, a laborer, florid complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes, round visage.

David Morris, 24 years, 5'3" enlisted in Perth 4 March 1757, born in Drone, Perth, a laborer, fresh complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, long visage.

Peter Robb, 17 years, 5'3", enlisted in Careston 8 March 1757, born in Glamis, Angus, a laborer, fresh complexion, black hair, hazel eyes, long visage.

Angus Laird, 17 years, 5'3", enlisted in Dundee 10 March 1757, born in Clunie, Perth, a laborer, fresh complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, long visage.

John Molyson, 18 years, 5'4", enlisted in Dundee 15 March 1757, born in Fethers, Mearns, a laborer, pale complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, long visage.

George Gordon, ........, 5'2", enlisted in Dundee 17 March 1757, born in Kintore, Aberdeen, a laborer, pale complexion, flaxen hair, .........

Recruiting Expenses
In December 1757, Lord Loudoun sent orders to New York for the regiment to prepare an official account of all initial recruiting expenses, "with all expedition possible," stating the particular sum each recruit costs as levy money and subsistence from the dates of their attestations to 24 April 1757. Captain John Campbell was assigned this task and immediately departed for Connecticut on 11 December where the remainder of the regiment was garrisoned.

Arriving three days later, Captain Campbell distributed orders to the company officers requesting the  expenses. The following is the detailed report that was prepared and submitted by the captain on/about 14 December 1757.

Note: Minor formatting changes including category headers and bracketed text has been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document.

Second Highland Battalion Recruiting Expenses, 1756-57

Credits:
[a] Levy Money for 1000 Private: £3000
[a] Muster given in Aid from 25th October till 24th Decr.: £1769

[b] Subst. of the 10 Companies Consisting of 40 Sergts. 40 Corpl.
20 Drums & 1000 private men from 25 Decbr. 1756 to 24 April 1757: £3509

[c] 182 days Subst. to 20 Warrant men from 25th October 1756 to 24th April 1757 as a Recruiting Fund: £91

Sub total: £8369

[d] From the above Deduct the Non Effectives of the 10 Companies as p. accot.: £669.10.5

Total: £7899.9.7

Debits:
[a] 1890 at £3 Each: £5670
[a] 40 Drafts at £5 each: £200

[b] Subst. of the above till 24 April: £3400

[c] other Regimental Expenses: £400

Debt Remains: £9670
Credit Subtracted: £7899.9.7

Debt owing by the Regiment preceeding the 24th of April 1757:

Total: £1770.10.5

Categories:
[a] Levy money
[b] Subsistence
[c] Recruiting fund/additional expenses
[d] Deductions

Note: Warrant men were fictitious persons found in most British regimental accounting books whose pay was distributed among widows of the officers; incidental expenses such as reimbursing the colonel for deserters' clothing; excess recruiting expenses, and for the personal use of the colonel and the regimental agent.

Soldier Documents
The documents are primarily kept at the National Archives in Kew, Richmond, Surrey, United Kingdom; however, very few original recruitment records for Colonel Fraser's Regiment are in existence. The National Archives has acquired transcript extract of warrants relating to the formation of the 2nd Highland Battalion in 1757, and this material is available on microfilm reel C-10866. Additionally, the National Army Museum in London published a pdf leaflet specifically designed to provide information about obtaining records, if available.

Recruiting Map
We have compiled a list of over 200 original soldiers of the Second Highland Battalion, including civilian recruiters, and documented their birthplaces  and/or potential recruiting locations throughout the country according to existing available documents. Both the recruiting map and the accompanying recruiting spreadsheet are available for download for personal research. Please contact us to obtain permission required for commercial usage.

Recruiting map

Recruiting spreadsheet [Microsoft Excel required]

Recruiting map for 248 soldiers of the Colonel Fraser's Second Highland Battalion, 1757
Recruiting map for the soldiers of Colonel Fraser's Second Highland Battalion, 1757
Sources:
Major James Clephane. "Size Roll of Clephane’s Recruits." Elizabeth Rose Family papers. GD125/22/16(15), National Archives Scotland.

Clephane. "Second Highland Battalion Enlistment Contract, 1757." GD125/22/16/14/1, National Archives Scotland.

Quebec Notarial Records. "William Campbell's bill of sale." Fonds Cour Supérieure. District judiciaire de Montmagny. Cote CN302. Greffes de notaires, 1709-1953. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Captain John Campbell, "Second Highland Battalion Recruiting Expenses, 1757." GD125/22/17(16), National Archives Scotland.

John Strachan, "Descriptive roll of men raised for Clephane at Dundee by John Strachan." GD125/22/16/18, National Archives Scotland.

Marie Fraser, "Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

Recruiting Act, 1756-57, 30 Geo. 2, cap. 8, 1757.

William Congreve to Wilmot. "Letter indicating not one of the recruits were papists or had falsely signed the religious certificates," 10 March 1757. PRO Ireland, T3019/3122.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.


Thursday, May 25, 2017

Levy Money for the 2nd Highland Battalion, or Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 1757

A levy is a military force raised ["levied"] in a particular manner. Typically this means units raised by conscription, but not always. In the British Empire, levies were units raised by local officials for local tasks; however, in the instance of the 2nd Highland Battalion, the unit was raised specifically for service in North America. Many of the soldiers who chose to enlist in Fraser's Highlanders did so for the money; some were initial recruits, others veterans of earlier service and wars. 

                         


War Office 13 January 1757 

My Lord & Sir. His Majesty Having been pleased to order two Highland Battalions of Foot to be forthwith raised and sent to North America each Battalion to consist of 40 Serjeants 40 Corporals 20 Drummers and 1000 Private Men besides Commission Officers (their Establishment to commence from the 23rd Dec`r last incl and to Allow three pounds per man Levy Money I have the Honour to Acquaint you therewith) that you may be pleased to lay a Memorial before the Rt. Humble the Lords Commissioners of his Maty`s Treasure for the Money wanting for this service. 

                                                                                         I am
                                                                                         My Lord & Sir
                                                                                         Barrington



Lord Visc`t Dupplin
                                        Paymaster Gen`l
& Tho`s Potter Esqr


Note: Thomas Hay, 9th Earl of Kinnoull, styled Viscount Dupplin, served as Paymaster of the Forces, from 1755 until 1757.

Source:
Lord Barrington, "Letter to William Pitt, Secretary at War." LAC, War Office Records: Out Letters: Secretary at War. General Letters, Dec. 1756 - Apr. 1757. W.O. 4, vol. 53.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2017.