Saturday, May 27, 2017

Recruitment

One question most often asked by genealogists is, where they can obtain a roster of soldiers, recruited in Scotland, who served with Fraser's Highlanders [originally numbered 2nd Highland Battalion] in Canada during the Seven Years' War, 1757-63. 

At the outset, the chances of identifying your ancestor as a soldier from the regiment are slim, but not entirely impossible. Officer's biographies are much more common and often contain genealogical data that we're able to connect with, whereas the scarcity of records for non-commissioned officers [serjeants, corporals, and private men] makes identification more difficult. And it's because of the latter that we're forced to seek additional records for clues.

In the case of our ancestor, William Alexander Campbell [sp. Marie Josephte Chartier,] the clue came in the form of a private bill of sale William had notarized in Saint Vallier, Quebec, Canada, in 1793, 30 years after the conclusion of the war. Located within the original instrument from 1761 was an official endorsement from Jacques [James] Abercrombie, Major, 78 Regt. Researchers for well over 100 years had speculated William was a private soldier from the regiment based on oral family history, and it was not until early 2017 that we would finally uncover the proof buried in old notarial records located at Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec.

This is just one example of the need to look past standard military and regimental records available in potentially identifying your relative. It also underscores the value of careful and thorough research and documentation in tracing that elusive ancestor who may have originally been recruited in Scotland, and later settled in Canada after the disbandment of the old 78th Regiment or returned home in 1763.

A word of caution! Evidence exists that a very small percentage of augments and/or draft recruits from North America may have supplemented the Regiment as losses were incurred between 1757-63, though, most likely extremely low in numbers. Therefore, as previously mentioned, careful research and due diligence is required in ensuring your soldier was of Scottish or American ancestry.

Enlistment Requirements
Specific requirements for enlistment were laid out by the British Government in the official Recruiting Act, 1756-57 as follows:

“...Provided always, that no person shall be inlisted by the said Commissioners by virtue of the Act, who is not such Able-bodied Man as is fit to serve his Majesty, and is free from Ruptures and every other Distemper, or bodily Weakness or Infirmity, which may render him unfoit to perform the Duty of a Soldier; and that no Man be inlisted for his Majesty’s Service by virtue of this Act, who shall appear in the Opinion of the Commissioners, or Officer or Officers appointed to receive the impressed Men, to be under the Age of Seventeen years, or above the Age of forty five years, or a known Papist, or who shall be under the Size of five feet four inches without Shoes.”
And while no evidence has been uncovered requiring Scottish Highlanders' swear to their religious affiliations, evidence is available to support the signing of religious certificates for some British and Irish troops of the same time period.

Enlistment Contract

These do certify that          Born in the Parish of
County of           Aged          Years came before 
me and declar'd that he had Voluntarly and of his own free will
enlisted himself to serve his Majesty King George as a Soldier
in Major James Clephane's Company of Lieut Colonel Fraser's
Second Battalion of Highlanders: that he had received the en=
=listing Money agreed on, and had no impediment to Render
him unfit for the Service. Accordingly he had the Articles
of War Read to him, and took the Oath to Majesty as by Law
directed

Second Battalion of Highlanders Enlistment Contract, 1757
Second Battalion of Highlanders enlistment contract, 1757
Recruits at Dundee for Major Clephane's Company
If your ancestor was recruited to the company of Major James Clephane of the 78th, who hired a crimp [professional recruiter] named John Strachan to recruit near Dundee, Scotland, some of these papers have been preserved and show the names of recruits, ages, birthplace, occupation, etc., as follows:

Alexander Bell, 19 years, 5'3" enlisted in Dundee 18 February 1757, born in Kirriemuir, Angus, a laborer, fresh complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes, round visage.

Alexander Findlay, 17 years, 5'3" enlisted in Dundee 19 February 1757, born in Monifieth, Angus, a laborer, swarthy complexion, black eyes, black hair, round visage.

Peter Moody, 17 years, 5'1" enlisted in Dundee 20 February 1757, born in Glamis, Angus, a laborer, fresh complexion, black hair, hazel eyes, long visage.

William McKenzie, 17 years, 5'2", enlisted in Dundee 20 February 1757, born in Kingoldrum, Angus, a weaver, fresh complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, long visage.

William Fife, 18 years, 5'2" enlisted in Dundee 21 February 1757, born in Kirriemuir, Angus, a weaver, fresh complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes, long visage.

George Wright, 21 years, 5'5" enlisted in Forfar 24 February 1757, born in Ruthven, Angus, a laborer, florid complexion, brown hair, hazel eyes, round visage.

David Morris, 24 years, 5'3" enlisted in Perth 4 March 1757, born in Drone, Perth, a laborer, fresh complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, long visage.

Peter Robb, 17 years, 5'3", enlisted in Careston 8 March 1757, born in Glamis, Angus, a laborer, fresh complexion, black hair, hazel eyes, long visage.

Angus Laird, 17 years, 5'3", enlisted in Dundee 10 March 1757, born in Clunie, Perth, a laborer, fresh complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, long visage.

John Molyson, 18 years, 5'4", enlisted in Dundee 15 March 1757, born in Fethers, Mearns, a laborer, pale complexion, brown hair, grey eyes, long visage.

George Gordon, ........, 5'2", enlisted in Dundee 17 March 1757, born in Kintore, Aberdeen, a laborer, pale complexion, flaxen hair, .........

Recruiting Expenses
In December 1757, Lord Loudoun sent orders to New York for the regiment to prepare an official account of all initial recruiting expenses, "with all expedition possible," stating the particular sum paid for each recruit as levy money and subsistence from the dates of their attestations to 24 April 1757. Captain John Campbell was assigned this task and immediately departed for Connecticut on 11 December where the remainder of the regiment was garrisoned.

Arriving three days later, Captain Campbell distributed orders to the company officers requesting  expenses. The following is the detailed report that was prepared and submitted by the captain on/about 14 December 1757.

Note: Minor formatting changes including category headers and bracketed text has been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document.

Second Highland Battalion Recruiting Expenses, 1756-57

Credits:
[a] Levy Money for 1000 Private: £3000
[a] Muster given in Aid from 25th October till 24th Decr.: £1769

[b] Subst. of the 10 Companies Consisting of 40 Sergts. 40 Corpl.
20 Drums & 1000 private men from 25 Decbr. 1756 to 24 April 1757: £3509

[c] 182 days Subst. to 20 Warrant men from 25th October 1756 to 24th April 1757 as a Recruiting Fund: £91

Sub total: £8369

[d] From the above Deduct the Non Effectives of the 10 Companies as p. accot.: £669.10.5

Total: £7899.9.7

Debits:
[a] 1890 at £3 Each: £5670
[a] 40 Drafts at £5 each: £200

[b] Subst. of the above till 24 April: £3400

[c] other Regimental Expenses: £400

Debt Remains: £9670
Credit Subtracted: £7899.9.7

Debt owing by the Regiment preceeding the 24th of April 1757:

Total: £1770.10.5

Categories:
[a] Levy money
[b] Subsistence
[c] Recruiting fund/additional expenses
[d] Deductions

Note: Warrant men were fictitious persons found in most British regimental accounting books whose pay was distributed among widows of the officers; incidental expenses such as reimbursing the colonel for deserters' clothing; excess recruiting expenses, and for the personal use of the colonel and the regimental agent.

Soldier Documents
The documents are primarily kept at the National Archives in Kew, Richmond, Surrey, United Kingdom; however, very few original recruitment records for Colonel Fraser's Regiment are in existence. The National Archives has acquired transcript extract of warrants relating to the formation of the 2nd Highland Battalion in 1757, and this material is available on microfilm reel C-10866. Additionally, the National Army Museum in London published a pdf leaflet specifically designed to provide information about obtaining records, if available.

Recruiting Map
We have compiled a list of over 200 original soldiers of the Second Highland Battalion, including civilian recruiters, and documented their birthplaces  and/or potential recruiting locations throughout the country according to existing available documents. Both the recruiting map and the accompanying recruiting spreadsheet are available for download for personal research. Please contact us to obtain permission required for commercial usage.

Recruiting map

Recruiting spreadsheet [Microsoft Excel required]

Recruiting map for 248 soldiers of the Colonel Fraser's Second Highland Battalion, 1757
Recruiting map for the soldiers of Colonel Fraser's Second Highland Battalion, 1757
Sources:
Major James Clephane. "Size Roll of Clephane’s Recruits." Elizabeth Rose Family papers. GD125/22/16(15), National Archives Scotland.

Clephane. "Second Highland Battalion Enlistment Contract, 1757." GD125/22/16/14/1, National Archives Scotland.

Quebec Notarial Records. "William Campbell's bill of sale." Fonds Cour Supérieure. District judiciaire de Montmagny. Cote CN302. Greffes de notaires, 1709-1953. Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Captain John Campbell, "Second Highland Battalion Recruiting Expenses, 1757." GD125/22/17(16), National Archives Scotland.

John Strachan, "Descriptive roll of men raised for Clephane at Dundee by John Strachan." GD125/22/16/18, National Archives Scotland.

Marie Fraser, "Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

Recruiting Act, 1756-57, 30 Geo. 2, cap. 8, 1757.

William Congreve to Wilmot. "Letter indicating not one of the recruits were papists or had falsely signed the religious certificates," 10 March 1757. PRO Ireland, T3019/3122.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.


Land Petitions

Be sure to explore Colonial New York Land Surveys as some of these same names will appear in both areas. Additionally, we've also included a few extra land petitioners from the 78th Regiment dated in 1802.

There are 3 steps involved with Land Grants:
  • Land petitions
  • Land allotments
  • Letters patents
1. Land Petitions
When New France became a British colony in 1763, a new land system was introduced. Lands were granted as part of townships in areas not already seigneury lands. Many early settlers, both military and civilian, submitted petitions to the Governor to obtain Crown land.

2. Land Allotments
If approved, the petitioner would obtain land on which to settle and work. Full ownership was often contingent on certain conditions being met, such as clearing, building, etc.  Authorities wanted to make sure that people actually settled the land and established themselves: colonization was the primary goal.

3. Letters Patent [Lands Granted]
Once the conditions were satisfied, the Government issued a Letter Patent, representing the final confirmation of a land grant. The two volume publication showing the successful land grants, List of Lands Granted by the Crown in the Province of Quebec from 1763 to 31st December1890, is available at the Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah or remotely using their online catalog.

There is, in the archives of the Registrar's Department in Quebec, Canada, no trace or rather no registration of the land grants which may have been made under the original issuing instructions at the conclusion of the war in 1763. According to these instructions, all Crown lands were to be granted in free tenure and without any other condition than the reservation of the right of the Crown to resume possession of the whole or part of the land granted in the event of its being required for military purposes.

The newly formed government limited the extent of military concessions as follows:

Staff Officers: 5,000 acres
Captains: 3,000 acres
Subalterns: 2,000 acres
Non-commissioned officers: 200 acres
Private men: 50 acres

1762

Apr. 27: Joseph Bouchette [1774-1841], in his Topographical Description of Lower Canada, says that the seigniories of Malbaie and Mount Murray were granted on 27 April 1762 to Captain John Nairn and Lieutenant Malcolm Fraser, two officers of the 78th Regiment. We were able to locate both of these concessions in the Department.

1765

Mar. 15: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 15 March 1765, 12 serjeants were listed; two in the 2nd Battalion 60th Royal American Regiment, and 10 in the 78th Regiment as follows:

"The Petition of Alexander Simpson and John McLone late Serjeants in the 2nd Battalion of the 60th Regiment, James Thompson, Hugh Tulloch, William Gunn, James McDonell, John Fraser, James Sinclair, Alexander Ferguson, Alexander Lieth, Lachlan Smith and Donald Fraser late Serjeants in the 78th Regiment."

This petition shows that of the 10 serjeants in the 78th Regiment, two were not among those previously listed; namely, Alexander Leith and Lauchlin Smith, the latter becoming the future father-in-law of Joseph Fraser, son of Lieutenant Malcolm Fraser of Mount Murray [1733-1815].

May 14: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 14 May 1765, Malcolm Fraser, late serjeant in the 78th Regiment, and entitled to two hundred acres of land, filed his paperwork with the Quebec Government. No location for the proposed property is mentioned; however, it is suggested the grant be tied together with 'the twelve reduced serjeants that have already petitioned.' This remark to reference land petition dated at 15 March 1765.

May 19: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 19 May 1765, one corporal and 22 private soldiers are listed as having served with the 78th Regiment as follows:

"The Petition of Donald McKenivan*, late Corporal, James Campbell, Edward Davidson, Thomas Davidson, George McAdam, Donald Clark, John Grant, Alex`r Cormac, John Chisolm, Alexander McDonald, Ranald McDonald, Alexander McNab, Thomas Cameron, Thomas Cameron, John Robie, Alexander Fraser, Angus McDonald, Duncan McCraw, James Forbes, Finlay Munro, Willm McNabb, Murdoch McPherson, Willm McKenzie, late Private Soldiers in the 78th Regiment, and William Campbell late Private in the 47th Regt." 

*Most likely Corporal Donald McKinnon.

Albeit seven of these men are listed on the Subsistence Rolls in 1763, they were not among those previously listed as having been discharged in Canada in 1763; namely, Donald Clark, Alexander McDonald, Alexander McNabb, Angus McDonald, Duncan McCraw, William McNabb, Finlay Munro; and four additional men were not among those previously listed as having served in the 78th; those being John Grant, Thomas Cameron, John Robie, and William McKenzie.

May 31: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 31 May 1765, the petition of Alexander McArthur and John Simson, late Private Soldiers in His Majesty's 78th Regiment of Foot. Alexander McArthur appears in Captain Archibald Campbell's Company, and John Simpson in the Colonel's Company when the regiment disbanded in 1763. Private men were entitled to 50 acres of land.

June 1: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 1 Jun 1765, the Petition of Donald Williamson, late Private in the 78th Regiment, John Valance - late Serjeant, John Thomas, Francis Anderson, John Lee, and Joseph Thompson, late Private in the 2d Battalion Royal American Regiment, Mackrick Sears, James Turner and Michael OBryean, late Private in the 47th Regiment.

Jul. 25: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 25 Jul 1765, James Abercrombie, Major, 78th Regt., petitions the Honorable James Murray, Governor of the Province of Quebec, for five thousand acres of land in "any of the Colonies in North America."

Nov. 20: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 20 Nov 1765, Peter Stuart and Donald McDonald petition the government for land located in the Bay of Chaleur, a familiar area for grant approval. Stuart's name appears twice as fighting on the Plains of Abraham, both in the 78th Regiment, and Donald McDonald's name appears in both the 78th Regiment [numerous instances] and also the 2nd Battalion of the 60th Royal American Regiment.

1766

Four additional soldiers from the 78th Regiment: Alexander McNab, James McKenzy, Duncan Mcray, and Murdoc Morrison, petition the Crown in this 1766 document. Two of these men - namely, Alexander McNab and Duncan Mcray [or Mcraw,] appear in the May 1765 petition. McNabb, McKenzey, and Morrison appear to be recently discharged soldiers from the 15th Foot.

Aug. 18: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 18 Aug 1766, the Petition of Donald Mackay and John Anderson, discharged soldiers in the 78th Regiment.

Aug. 23: Petition of Donald Mackay, a discharged soldier in the 78th Regiment.

Aug. 27: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 27 Aug 1766, Mr. Alex`r Mackay late Serjeant of the 78th Regt. present at Berthier, petitioned for his lands at the Bay of Challour, has given a toleration to Mr. James Thomson Town Sargeant to draw for him not being himself present. This is most likely Alexander McKay, Serjeant, in Capt. Hugh Fraser's Company when the regiment disbanded in 1763.

Jul. 30: In a land petition, dated at Quebec 30 July 1768, Ranald MacDonell, late discharged soldier from the 78th and 15th Regiments of Foot, is listed in the Department as filing with the Lieutenant Governor of the Province of Quebec. There were many soldiers from the 47th and 78th Regiments that transferred to the 15th Regiment at the conclusion of the war in 1763, electing to stand guard on the province through 1768.

1787

May 20: To His Excellency Frederick Haldemand Esq. Captain General and Commander in Chief of His Majestys Province of Quebec, Vice Admiral of the same:

The humble petition of George GEDDES of Piercie Sheweth

Quebec 20 May 1787 George Geddes [signature]
To Jenkin Williams Esq.

Witness David Miles Clerk of the Council

1800

Jul. 8: Petition of John Ross of Maskinonge in the District of Three Rivers. That he served as a corporal in His Majesty's 78th Regiment commanded by Colonel Fraser at the Siege of Louisbourg and conquest of Canada in 1759 and 1760. That the petitioner is in an advanced state of age and has a wife and twelve children.

Sources:
Quebec National Archives. Land Petitions of Lower Canada, 1764-1841 [Oct. 2015].

Fraser, Marie. Muster Rolls of the Old 78th Fraser Highlanders [Clan Fraser Society, 2017].

QFHS. Quebec Land Grants [May 2017].

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2017. 

Thursday, May 25, 2017

Levy Money for the 2nd Highland Battalion, or Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 1757

A levy is a military force raised ["levied"] in a particular manner. Typically this means units raised by conscription, but not always. In the British Empire, levies were units raised by local officials for local tasks; however, in the instance of the 2nd Highland Battalion, the unit was raised specifically for service in North America. Many of the soldiers who chose to enlist in Fraser's Highlanders did so for the money; some were initial recruits, others veterans of earlier service and wars. 

                         


War Office 13 January 1757 

My Lord & Sir. His Majesty Having been pleased to order two Highland Battalions of Foot to be forthwith raised and sent to North America each Battalion to consist of 40 Serjeants 40 Corporals 20 Drummers and 1000 Private Men besides Commission Officers (their Establishment to commence from the 23rd Dec`r last incl and to Allow three pounds per man Levy Money I have the Honour to Acquaint you therewith) that you may be pleased to lay a Memorial before the Rt. Humble the Lords Commissioners of his Maty`s Treasure for the Money wanting for this service. 

                                                                                         I am
                                                                                         My Lord & Sir
                                                                                         Barrington



Lord Visc`t Dupplin
                                        Paymaster Gen`l
& Tho`s Potter Esqr


Note: Thomas Hay, 9th Earl of Kinnoull, styled Viscount Dupplin, served as Paymaster of the Forces, from 1755 until 1757.

Source:
Lord Barrington, "Letter to William Pitt, Secretary at War." LAC, War Office Records: Out Letters: Secretary at War. General Letters, Dec. 1756 - Apr. 1757. W.O. 4, vol. 53.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2017. 

Early Newspaper Accounts for the 78th Regiment [2nd Highland Battalion]

1757
Schofields Middlewich Journal, or Cheshire
Advertiser
January 4, 1757. [NUMB 27.]
The two Regiments raising in the Highlands are to consist of 1000 Men each, to be commanded by Col. Fraser, Son of the late Lord Lovat, and Major Montgomery, Brother to the Earl of Eglington. No Lowlanders to be received into these Regiments, but are to be raised from the following Clans, viz. the Campbell's, the Mackenzie's, the Frazer's, the Macdonald's and the Grants.

London Gazette
From Tuesday, January, 18, 1757, to Saturday, January 22, 1757. NUMB. 9654
Whitehall, United Kingdom, January 22.  His Majesty has been graciously pleased to appoint Gentlemen to be Officers in the Second Highland Battalion of Foot to be forthwith raised for His Majesty's Service.

Simon Fraser, Esq; Lieutenant Colonel Commandant.
Esqrs. Majors:
James Clephane
John Campbell

Esqrs. Captains:
Thomas Fraser
John McPherson
John Campbell
Simon Fraser
Donald McDonald
John McDonnell
Charles Baillie

J. Crawford Walkinshaw, Captain Lieutenant.

Lieutenant:
John Fraser
Archibald McDonald
Simon Fraser
Ronald McDonald
John McDougal
Charles McDonnell
Simon Fraser
Hector McDonald
Hugh Cameron
Simon Fraser
William McDonald
[.....] McToth
John Murray
Rory McNeil
Alexander Fraser
Archibald Campbell
Donald Mac Lean
James Fraser
Alexander Mac Leod

Ensigns:
Simon Fraser
Archibald McAllister
William Fraser
James Fraser
Allan Stuart
Evan Cameron
Lachlan McLachlan
[.....] Chisholme
John Fraser

Staff Officers:
[.....], Chaplain
John McLean, Surgeon
[.....], Adjutant
[.....], Quarter Master

The Public Advertiser  NEW
Monday, January 24, 1757  
We hear that Frazer's Battalion of Highlanders is near compleated, and the other in great Forwardness.

London Read Weekly, or British Gazetteer
Saturday, January 29, 1757. Nº 39010
To expedite the raising of the two Highland Battalions of foot to be sent to North America, we hear, that the Captain of each company has undertaken to raise fifty men; the two Lieutenants twenty men each, and the Ensign ten; by which means each company will be complete in six weeks from the date of their commissions, and are to make together a body of 2000 men. The two battalions to be raised in the Highlands are to be in the Highland dress, both officers and men.

Schofields Middlewich Journal, or Cheshire Advertiser
Tuesday, February 1, 1757. [NUMB. 31]
A Bill is depending for the better recruiting his Majesty's Army ; in which there is a Clause for giving Three Pounds Bounty to every Man who voluntarily enters, and discharging them after three Years Service.

The Public Advertiser
Thursday, February 3, 1757
Glasgow, Jan. 24. On Wednesday an Order was received from London, to provide 2400 pairs of shoes and also Shoulder-Belts for the two Highland Regiments now raising.

London Read Weekly, or British Gazetteer
Friday, February 11, 1757
On Saturday a great number of Scots men out of the guards, and inlisted here for the two battalions of Highlanders now raising, were review'd by their officers in their proper uniform.

Schofields Middlewich Journal : Cheshire Advertiser
Tuesday, February 22, 1757
Extract of a Letter from Edinburgh, dated Feb. 8. We are assured that most of the Commissioners appointed by the Recruiting Act in Scotland have exerted themselves with a most laudable Spirit and Dispatch, for his Majesty's Service, in raising the necessary Supplies of good and able Men to compleat the new Levies, and that with the greatest Care and Attention, for the Ease and Welfare of his Majesty's Subjects. That the City of Edinburgh, and the Shires of Air, Renfrew, Kirkoudbright, Selkirk, Wigton, Dumbarton, Linlithgow, Cromarty, Nairn, Bamff, Aberdeen, Kincardine, Forfar, Fife, and Clackmannan, have already sent in their full Compliments: That the City of Edinburgh, and the Shire of Air, Renfrew, Dumbarton, Forfar, Fife, Kincardine, Aberdeen, and Cromarty, have also added some more Men to their Numbers, and are still continuing to exert themselves on the Service of their King and Country, by turning over from time to time, proper Men for Soldiers: that the Shires of Edinburgh, Perth, Dumfries, Rofs and Elgin, want but very few to complete their respective Quotes ; and it in not in the least doubted that the other Commissioners will use their utmost Care and Diligence to furnish immediately their Numbers of young and able Men for this public and important Service. Upwards of thirteen Hundred Men have been raised in the above mentioned Counties, in the Space of three Weeks, most of whom are young, of good Size and Appearance; and the Commissioners are unanimously resolved not to harbour any of them who shall desert, but to seize and return them immediately to their respective Corps. Many men have also inlisted voluntarily in the said Counties to avoid being impressed.
They write from Edinburgh, that the levying of the new Highland Battalions goes on successfully in the North, and particularly that the Munro Company [Col. Montgomery's Regt.] was compleated in about 10 Days.

The Public Advertiser
Friday, March 25, 1757. NUMB. 6093
The Recruits quartered about Town belonging to the Highland Battalions are ordered to march in order to embark. 

London Read Weekly, or British Gazeteer
Saturday, March 26, 1757. Nº 3918
Edinburgh, March 17. On the 2d instant marched from Aberdeen for Inverness, [being head quarters] the first detachment of Capt. Simon Fraser's company [in the second battalion of Col. Fraser's Highland Regiment] consisting of eighty two; the remainder forty eight, are kept in the country on the recruiting business, in all, one hundred and thirty. They are all well made fellow, mostly Highlanders and speak the Irish language; and were all raised and enlisted in the space of five weeks. 

The General Evening Post
From Saturday April 2, to Tuesday, April 5, 1757. No. 3627
London, April 2. Orders are dispatched to the North, for the two Battalions of Highlanders immediately to march to Port Patrick, from whence they are to proceed with all Expedition to Corke, in order to embark for America. Tis said each of the Battalions have about 200 Men above their Compliment.

London Evening-Post
From Saturday, April 9, 1757, to Tuesday, April 12, 1757. NUMB. 4591
Dublin, April 2. The two Highland Battalions raised in Scotland, are to land at Donaghadee, and marched from thence to Corke, to embark with other Forces for America.
We hear the Regiments commanded by Lieut. Gen. Phillip Anstruther, Major Gen. John Folliot, and Col. Yorke, are to embark from Scotland for this Kingdom, and land at Donaghadee; and that Maj. Gen. Lambton's and Col. Anstruther's Regiments are to be sent from England to land at Corke, to replace the Forces order'd to America. 

London Read Weekly Journal or British Gazeteer
Saturday, April 9, 1757. Nº 3920
Admirality Office. April 5. Orders are dispatched to the north for the two battalions of Highlanders immediately to march to Port Patrick, from whence they are to proceed with all expedition to Cork, in order to embark to America. 'Tis faid each of the battalions have about 200 men above their compliment.

The Public Advertiser
Thursday, April 21, 1757. NUMB. 7016
Edinburgh, April 14. The Remainder of the two Highland Battalions will be at Glasgow this week where they are to be review'd in their Uniforms on Wednesday next, immediately after which they will proceed to Port Patrick, in their way to Cork.

The Evening Advertiser
Thursday, April 28, 1757. No. 91
Dublin, April 23. Last Monday two officers set out for Donaghadee, in order to conduct the two highland battalions to Cork for embarkation.

Scots Magazine, Vol. 19  NEW
May, 1757
Cols. Montgomery and Fraser's two new-raised highland battalions were mustered at Glasgow April 26. & 29. by the Hon. Charles Hope-Weir. Both were complete, and they had discharged several supernumerary men. They soon after went to Ireland.

Note: Charles Hope-Weir (Linlithgowshire) was a member of Scottish Parliament, and held the office of muster-master general of Scottish land forces from 1744-1759.

The Public Advertiser
Saturday, May 7, 1757. NUMB 7030
Edinburgh, April 30. Thursday, the 2d Battalion of Highlanders, commanded by Col. Montgomery, marched from Glasgow to Port-Patrick, in order to embark for Iceland. Colonel Frazer's Battalion will march Next week.

London Evening Post
June 11, 1757
Extract of a Letter from Portsmouth, June 12
Friday afternoon the Enterprize fell down to St. Hellen's with the Transports under her Convoy for Ireland.  Saturday morning sailed from St. Hellens the Enterprize and Scarborough, with the Convoy, to the westward.

The Magazine of Magazines: Compiled From Original Papers
Friday, June 17, 1757
His Majesty's Ship Enterprize of 40 Guns arrived at Cork, as did the Achilles of 64 guns, Hon. Capt. Barrington at Limerick, to take under convoy the East Indiamen there.
Note: The ship Enterprize arrived at Cork from Portsmouth and would sail for Canada within two weeks with Fraser's Highlanders on board the different transport vessels.

The Gentleman and London's Magazine
Thursday, June 30, 1757
Sailed from Cork his majesty's ship Falkland 50 guns for South Carolina, the Enterprize of 40 guns for Nova Scotia, and the Stork sloop of 10 guns for Jamaica, with 20 sail of transports, having on board the two Highland battalions commanded by the Cols. Montgomery and Frazer, and the West India fleet.

Journal of Hugh Gaine
July 8, 1757
This Day by way of Philadelphia, we have advice of the sailing of the Fleet, from Cork, with 5000 Forces only instead of 9000 as was reported under Convoy of 15 Sail of the Line, 2 Frigates, 2 Bombs, 21 Storeships and Fifty-five Transports; They sailed from Cork the 8th of May. The Highland Regiments, nor the Ships from England, were not arrived at Cork, but 'twas [said?] they would soon arrive there, and Sail for America under Convoy of five Ships of the Line.

The Public Advertiser
Tuesday, July 12, 1757. Numb 7056
Corke, Ireland, June 30. This Morning failed from Cove his Majesty's Ship Falkland for South Carolina, the Enterprise for Nova-Scotia, and the Stork Sloop for Jamaica, with 20 Sail of Transports, having two Battallions of Highlanders on board, as also the Trade for the Weft-Indies, under Convoy of the above Men of War.

The General Evening Post
Edinburgh, Tuesday, July 26, 1757
We are informed that orders are given for raising nine companies of Highlanders of 100 men each; three whereof are to be added to Lord John Murray's regiment, three to Col. Montgomery's, and three to Col. Frazer's: they are to be sent to America as soon as they can be raised. Several necessaries are preparing for them.

The Public Advertiser
Thursday, July 28, 1757. NUMB. 7100
Edinburgh, Scotland, July 21. Nine independent Companies of Highlanders are immediately to be raised, for the more speedy recruiting of Highland Battalions now in America. Several of the Officers are already appointed.

The General Evening Post
Halifax, in Nova Scotia, August 4. On the 29th nlt. a brig arrived here, by whom we have advice, that she left the Windsor about eight days ago, having under her convoy 18 transports with 2000 Highlanders, and a prize which was bound to Canada, with 30,000 l. in specie, and worth in all 50,000 l.

The Marine List
Undated
Capt. Bonham, arrived at Cork from the East-Indies, writes, that on 31st of August, in Lat.21-30. he spoke with the Enterprize Man of War, having under her Convoy 15 Sail of ships bound for the West-Indies.
Note: Col. Fraser's Regiment arrived at Halifax in two groups, under convoy of the Enterprize, between 24-28 August 1757. 

The Public Advertiser
Tuesday, November 8, 1757. NUMB. 7188
Edinburgh, Scotland, Nov. 1. Seven of the nine additional Companies for the three Highland Battalions are arrived at Glasgow ; the other two were expected there yesterday.

Scots Magazine. v. 19
The nine new-raised highland companies sailed from Greenock for Corke, Dec. 1.

1758

The London Chronicle: Or, Universal Evening Post
From Thursday, June 1, to Saturday, June 3, 1758. Nº 223.
Boston, Massachusetts, April 24. His Excellency General Lawrance with his battalion of Royal Americas, and Colonel Frazier with his regiment of Highlanders, sailed from Nantucket yesterday morning; the troops had been embarked some days, waiting a wind.

The Whitehall Evening Post: Or, London Intelligencer
From Thursday, June 1, to Saturday, June 3, 1758. Nº 1903.
New-York, April 27. The Third Battalion of Royal American, and Frazer's Second Battalion of Highlanders, embark'd at Boston, and are sailed for Halifax.

Annapolis Maryland Gazette  NEW
27 July 1758
Halifax, June 24.
Extract of a letter from a Gentleman in the present Expedition against Louisbourg, dated at Cabarous. June 16, 1758.
We are informed, that the Highlanders, according to their usual Bravery, Fell upon the French in their Entrenchments with their Broad-Swords, upon which they immediately fled : And had it been possible for the main Body of the Army to have joined them, they would have taken the Town Sword-in-Hand. Col. Frazer, and the other Officers of his Regiment, behaved with great Spirit and Bravery.

Annapolis Maryland Gazette  NEW
27 July 1758
Philadelphia, July 20.
A Gentleman at Halifax, in a Letter to his Friend here, of the 28th ult. wherein he mentions the Landing of our Army at Louisbourg, expresses himself as follows: "I cannot concluded without taking notice of the remarkably brave Behaviour of our Col. Frazer and his Highlanders on this occasion; his Grenadiers were the first that landed, and consequently suffered the most; they lost Capt. Baille, Lieutenant Cuthbert, Serjeant M'Pherson, and several private men, and had many wounded; but the French were struck with such a panic on their jumping into their Trenches, Sword in Hand, that they fled; and had it been possible that the whole Army could have landed in time to support them, they would have enter'd the Town, mixed with the Enemy, and made a very speedy Decision of the Affair.

The Public Advertiser
Tuesday, September 26, 1758. Numb. 746?
Extract of a letter from on board one of the Men of War arrived at Spithead from Louisbourg, dated Sept. 18.
On the 8th of June our Men, attempting to land in Gabarus Bay, were repulsed by the Enemy (who fired very briskly from the Batteries which they had erected on Shore) except Col. Frazer's Regiment who leaped overboard, and swam to a Point of Rocks, on which (the Enemy having no Batteries there) they made good their Landing, and directly attacking the Enemy (French and Indians) with their Broad-swords, caused them to fly, and thereby made our way for our other Forces to land. Amongst the slain of the Enemy was an Indian six feet nine Inches high. The Enemy, who call the Highlanders, English Savages, surrendered on the 26th of July to our Forces.

A Brief Relation  
Saturday, October 21, 1758
Regiments sailed from Louisbourg for Boston, the 30th of August.
2d battalion of Royal Scots, Gen. Sinclair.
17th regiments, General Forbes's.
47th ditto, Lascelle's.
48th ditto, Webb's.
63d ditto, Col. Frazer's highlanders.
Under convoy of the Captain man of war of 64 guns, commanded by Capt. Amherst, with General Amherst onboard.
We hear from the southward, that General Forbes lies dangerously ill.

London Read Weekly Journal  NEW
Saturday, November 4, 1758
Glasgow, Oct. 23. On Wednesday last arrived at Greenock, the Ludlow-Castle man of war, Capt. Clark, with nine sail of transports from Portsmouth, to carry a body of new raised highlanders, &c over to North America.

London Evening-Poft
Saturday, November 4, 1758. Numb, 4837
Boston, Massachusetts, Sept. 18. Last Wednesday arrived in our Harbour from Louisbourg his Majesty's Ship the Captain, commanded by Capt. Amherst, in which came Major General Amherst. Between 30 and 40 Transports, which came out with the Captain Man of War, having on board the second Battalion of Royal Scots, as alfo Forbes's, Lascelles's, and Webbs' Regiment, with Fraser's Highlanders, are also arrived. The Troops are in good health, were disembarked on Thursday, and encamped on the Common. But, notwithstanding their late Fatigues, the whole body decamped on the Saturday Morning following, and with General Amherst at their Head, are now marching towards Lake George, to join the Army under General Abercrombie, with great Chearfulness and Expedition.

1759

The Whitehall Evening Post
Thursday, January 4, to Saturday, January 6, 1759. No. 1997
The King has been pleased to appoint Donald Cameron, Gent. to be Lieutenant in the 78th Regiment, or 2d Highland Battalion of Foot, commanded by Lieut. Col. Simon Fraser.

London Read Weekly or British Gazetteer
January 6, 1759
We hear that 50 supernumerary men are to be raised in Scotland to go with the additional companies of Col. Montgomery and Col. Fraser's highland battalions.

London Read Weekly
Saturday, January 13, 1759. No. 4013
The King has been pleased to appoint Alexander Fraser, Esq. to be Lieutenant in the 78th Regiment, or 2d Highland Battalion of Foot, commanded by Lieut. Col. Simon Fraser.

The Universal Chronicle  NEW
Thursday, March 1
Extract of a letter from an Officer in Col. Frazer's regiment, dated at the camp by Fort Stanwix, Nov. 8, 1758.
After the reduction of Louisburg, five of the regiments that were there, came, under the command of General Amherst, to Boston; of that number our regiment was one. We there met with orders from General Abercrombie to march for Albany, which is 226 miles: A few after our arrival there, our regiment was ordered to this place, which is one hundred and thirty-eight miles further, all upon Mohawk river, except 18 miles betwixt Albany and Schenectady. The lands on the river far exceed any I ever saw, in particular the German Flatts, now quite depopulated. Our regiment is returned to Schenectady, leaving here the four companies commanded by Major Clephane, Captains Macpherson, John Macdonel, and Dungallan. This place was formerly called the Oneida Station, or Great Carrying place; but Brigadier-general Stanwix, being ordered here with 5000 Provincials, has been employed there two months past in building a fort, now called by his name, Fort Stanwix; which our four companies are to occupy this winter, This situation cannot be agreeable, as we have none but Indians within 48 miles of us.

Public Advertiser  
Thursday, March 22, 1759  
Scotland. Edinburgh, March 15. On Wednesday last arrived at Glasgow two additional Companies of Highlanders, of 100 Men each, the one for Colonel Frazer's Regiment, the other for Colonel Montgomery's, and on Saturday they marched for Greenock, to take shipping for America.

The London Evening-Post  NEW
From Tuesday October 16, to Thursday October 18, 1759. Numb. 4985
Extract of the Return, Killed, Wounded and Missing, at the Battle of Quebec, Sept. 13, 1759.
Colonel Simon Frazer's. Captains, ----- Ross, killed. John M'Donnell, Simon Fraser, wounded. Lieutenants, M'Donnell, Archibald Campbell, Alexander Campbell, Jahn Douglas, Alexander Fraser, Sen. wounded. Ensigns, Jomes M'Kenzie, Alexander Gregorson, Malcolm Frazer, Sen. wounded. 1 Serjeant, 14 Rank and File, killed. 7 Serjeants, 131 Rank and File, wounded. 2 Rank and File, missing.

Universal Chronicle and Weekly Gazette
Saturday, October 20, 1759
Extract of a letter from Quebec, Sept. 20, 1759.
'I thank God I have been in a good state of health since my arrival here, nor have the fatigues incident to a campaign, in which we had almost every kind of difficulty to surmount, affected my health in the least. Were I to describe, in military phrases, the strength, situation, number, and, upon this occasion, uncommon bravery of the enemy (who needed to have nothing to fear from our number, but our deficiency in that respect was sufficiently supplied by unanimity and courage) you would not be a little surprised at our undertaking, which I believe to have been by sole direction of Providence, and to which the harmony among us hath greatly contributed, every man in his station, discharging his duty. Our loss hath been inconsiderably separate from our dear courageous, yet mild Wolfe, whose fall added revenge to intrepidity. The regiments of Lascelles, Kennedy's, and Wolfe's grenadiers, did wonders: the Highlanders, if anything, exceeded them. When they betook to their broad swords, my God! what a havock they made! drove every thing before them that came in their way, and walls could not refit their fury. - Those breechless brave fellows are an honour to their country. - I cannot do them justice in my description of them; but I have reason to believe that their bravery shall meet with praise and approbation, the only reward (except half victuals and cloaths) that a Highlander demands, being prepossessed naturally with a kind of martial honour.
I cannot say what we shall next do, but we seem to put this place in a proper state of defence, for fear of insult. - For the particulars of the engagement, surrender of the town, and loss on both sides, I refer you to the packets by express, which I have no doubt will be joyful news in England.'
                                                                               I am, Sir, Your's, &c.
                                                                               Capt. James Calcraft

1760

Public Advertiser
Thursday, July 24, 1760
Scotland. Edinburgh, July 19. Extract of a Letter from an Officer in Colonel Frazer's Regiment, dated from Quebec, May 20. "The French bought their Advantage on the 28th of April, at a very dear Rate; they had 4 Companies of their Grenadiers cutoff to 30; they lost in all about 2000 by their own Account, and 500 more during the Siege, which lasted 19 Days, during which it is incredible to tell with what Spirit everything went on in the Garrison, and what Works were furnished; the Town was so fortified, that the Enemy could not have been Mailers of it, without a great Loss of Time, and a great Number of their Men. I assure you, that during the Siege we had not above 2000 Men fit for Duty; the rest were taken ill with Flux and Scurvy; and it must be said of the Governor and Garrison, that they have acted with a Spirit worthy of True Britons. As to the Loss this Regiment has sustained, it is as usual, for out of 340 Men that marched out [500 being HI of the Scurvy remaining in the Town] 230 were killed: or wounded, and of 35 Officers, there were 29 killed or wounded. Capt. Donald M'Donald, and Lieut. Cosmo Gordon, were killed, and poor Hector Macdonald of Boisdale was shot thro' the Lungs, of which he died in three Days; Ensign Fraser died of his Wounds in five Days; all of them greatly and justly regretted. All the rest of the wounded Officers are doing well."

The Daily Register NEW
St. Valoir, near Quebec, Oct. 14.
Colonel Frazer's regiment are quartered in the country round Quebec, for refreshing themselves after their long confinement in that place. Capt. Abercrombie of the 4th regiment, is appointes Major in Colonel Frazer's, in room of Major Campbell, preferred. Captain John Campbell has purchased the other Majoralty in the said regiment; and Lieutenant Alexander Campbell has got a company.

The London Chronicle: or Universal Evening-Post NEW
From Tuesday, October 21, to Thursday, October 23, 1760. No. 597
Thursday, Oct. 23.
Extract of a Letter from an Officer in Colonel Frazer's Regiment, to his Friend in Edinburgh, dated Quebec, Sept. 13, 1760.
We are just arrived from Fort Jaques Quartier, which we invested and took the 9th instant, before we knew any thing pf the taking of Montreal. This expedition was commanded ny Col. Frazer, who had a detachment of 800 men, and the place was resolutely defended by the Marquis d'Albergotts, an Italian, who fired on us, till he was reduced to thirty pounds of powder, and saw us move towards the fort to storm it; so that he had the honour of being the last who held out, and we of taking the last fort in Canada.

1762

Gazeteer and London Daily Advertiser
Monday, August 30, 1762. No. 10,407
The following regiments still remain in North America, viz, 44th, Abercrombies; 45th, Boscowan's; 46th, Murray's; 47th, Lascelle's; 55th, Oughton's; 60th [or Royal American,] three battalions; 78th Fraser's Highlanders; and 80th, late Gage's; in all 10 battalions. It is supposed that some of these [particulary at Halifax or Quebec, at which last place there are three regiments] may be ready to co-operate with the fleet that is sailed from England, for the recovery of Newfoundland.

Gazeteer and London Daily Advertiser
Tuesday, September 28, 1762
Lieut. William Robertson, of the 78th Regiment of foot. commanded by the Hon. Col. Fraser, to be Captain of an independent company of foot.

1763

London Evening Post
Thursday September 8, to Saturday September 10, 1763. Numb. 5994
His Majesty has been pleased to constitute and appoint Lieut. Alexander Wood, to be Captain in the 78th Regiment of foot, commanded by the Hon. Col. Fraser, in the room of Capt. Charles McDonald, deceased.

St. James Chronicle or British Evening Post
  

London, 8 December 1763 
Edinburgh, December 3. From Glasgow we have Advice that only the Officers and 200 private Men of Colonel Frazer's Regiment from Quebec had arrived at Greenock, and that 400 of them, before they left that Place, had been draughted into General Amherst's Regiment of Royal Americans.

Note: It is confirmed draughts of the 78th Regiment were transferred to the 15th & 60th Royal American Regiments. Evidence is not yet available confirming any men transferred to the 27th Regt.

St. James Chronicle or British Evening Post  
NEW
London, 22 December 1763 
Glasgow, December 15. Yesterday the Remains of Colonel Frazer's Regiment of Highlanders were drawn up in the Green, and afterwards disbanded; by their stay at Quebec most of them are able to speak the French Language tolerably.

Gazeteer & London Daily Advertiser  
NEW
London, Monday, 26 December 1763 
The 14th inst. Frazer's Highlanders regiment was broke at Glasgow; most of them had learned French during their residence at Quebec.

1767

Williamsburg, Virginia Gazette  NEW
March 5, 1767  
We have the honour to present the petition of John Frazier, Esq; Captain in the late 78th regiment, Deputy Paymaster General at Montreal, and one of the Judges of the court of Common Pleas; John Campbell, Esq., Captain in the 27th regiment; Daniel Disney, Esq; Captain in the 44th regiment; St. Luke la Corne, late Captain in the French service, and Knight of the Order of St. Louis; Simon Evans, Lieutenant in the 28th regiment; and Mr. Joseph Howard, merchant.

At the same time that we express our abhorrence of the breach of publick order in the outrage committed on the person of Mr. Thomas Walker, and our wishes for the discovery of the perpetrators of it, we cannot be unmoved when we consider the circumstances of the Gentlemen, now torn from their families, and imprisoned on suspicion thereof.

Until we hear the crime proved against them we cannot help interesting ourselves for men who, from their families, stations, services, and established characters [until this surprising stroke] stood in the highest degree of estimation in this province.

We not only feel for them, but for their families. With what affliction do his Majesty's new subjects behold their gray hairs of their countrymen so unexpectedly, perhaps irretrievably, affronted!

We therefore most earnestly entreat you, Sir, to interpose your authority to mitigate the rigour of the law; a dispensation even from which would be in this case, if any, we humbly conceive, justifiable.

We are so well convinced of those Gentelmens honours that all and every one of us do hereby offer to become their bail, to the uttermost extent of our fortunes, nay even with our lives, as well as their appearance to take their trial as for the safety of Mr. Walker's person from any hurt from them, in consequence of their enlargement.

From your Honour's known clemency and moderation, we flatter ourselves with the strongest hopes that every possible management in favour of these Gentlemen will be employed. Their before untainted characters, and publick voice, makes us confident that none ever was better applied. All which is, with the greatest respect, humbly submitted to your Honour's judicious consideration.

Quebec, Nov. 23, 1766  [Signed by 69 hands]

This article was last updated 31 May 2019.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.