Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Invalid Soldiers of the 78th Regiment, 1759-1763

Invalid soldiers were typically injured soldiers fully capable of performing light garrison duties, but not cleared to participate in extended campaigns. They were given duties such as gate guard, cook's assistant, or night watch patrols until such a time when funding and availability permitted their transport back home to Royal Chelsea Hospital in London to attend to their injuries. However, some of these men of Fraser's 78th Regiment, as described by Governor Murray in a letter dated October 20, 1762, were certainly not well off and appear to be in a very bad way.

"...Frasers Regt. is not as strong as it appears to be on paper, I have the honor to inclose a Return of the Invalids of that Corps who are unfit for Garrison duty, and there are many besides who are incapable of taking the field. As those unfit for any duty are kept here at a great expense to the Crown, I did propose to Major Abercrombie to send them Home by the Aldborough, but he told me he believed it was not your intention to discharge any of them, I therefore conclude there are particular Reasons for keeping them on the Roles, some of them want legs, & some arms."

In an excerpt from this December 1762 letter, Governor Murray continues in addressing the situation. Given the time of year, winter freeze most likely forced his decision to refrain from sending the men home at that time.

"...There will not now probably be an opportunity to send home the Invalids of the 78th Regt. 'till the disolution of the Corps, if it shall turn out otherwise, I shall be carefull that none are discharged, but real objects of compassion."

Documents
The following is a collection of invalid soldiers of Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Regiment, 1759-1763, extracted from various documents.

1. Title: Return of Invalids put on board the Nightingale Man of War who Sailed from Louisbourg Harbour June 11th 1759.

Regiments:
Artillery: 2
22 Regiment: 10
35 Regiment: 6
40 Regiment: 10
43 Regiment: 10
45 Regiment: 11
47 Regiment: 1
63 Regiment: 10

Total: 60

2. Title: Return of Invalids under the Command of Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. Embarked on board the Unanimous Transport, New York, 9th January 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Archd. Stewart
Robert Ross
John Cameron
John Mcleron
Donald Livingstone
John McLeod
George Crookshanks
Hector McTeal
Hugh McMullen
Neal McIntosh
Alexr. McCall
John McDougall
John Cameron

The above men are all paid to the Twenty fourth December 1759, and have signed to that purpose on the back of their Discharges, and Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. has received for them sixty one days pay to the Twenty third of February Inclusive. And he has my orders upon his arrival at Portsmouth, or wheresoever he may arrive to notify his coming to the Secretary at War, waiting his orders for his preceding to London, either by sea if there should be an order for it or by Land agreeable to the march route, he may Receive for that purpose. He is directed upon his arrival at London to Deliver over said Invalids to the Agents of the Regiment they belong to and to pay over to them the pay he may still have in his hands belonging to those men.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
James Taylor
John McDonald

The above [two] men are Discharged and not Recommended to Chelsea, but have Desired passage to England.

[signed]
Jeff Amherst

3. Title: Return of Invalids to be discharged, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Alexr. Kenedy: Old Age
Murdoch McKinzey: Old Age
Wm. McLeod: Old Age & Rhumatic
David Gallen: Old Age
Danl. Campble: Old Age
Robt. Monroe: Old Age
Keneth McLeod: Old Age
Alexr. McDougald: Old Age
John Fraser: Old Age
Danl. Black: Old Age
James Fraser: Old Age
John McNab: Old Age
Niel Beaton: Old Age
Archd. McQuin: Old Age

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of the Invalids to be Discharged
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

4. Title: Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Duncan McGregar
Peter Thompson

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York.
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

5. Title: Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Saml. McDonald
Peter McNiel
John Campbel
James Tolmay
Charles Robinson
Laughlin McIntosh
David Morrison
Geo: Sutherland
Alexr. McDonald

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

6. Title: Return of Invalids Under the Command of Capt. Gordon of the Royal Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8 Decemr. 1760.

78th Regiment
Andrew Kennedy
Neal McKay
Charles Robinson
James Tolmie
David Morrison

The above men are all paid to the 24th Decemr. 1760 & have signed to that purpose on the back of their Discharges; Capt. Gordon of the Royal Regt. has received for them sixty one days pay to the 23d. Feby. Inclusively, and he has my orders upon his Arrival at Portsmouth, or wheresoever he may Arrive, to apply to the Commanding Naval Officer, for a Convoy to conduct the vessell, in which the said Invalids are, up the River Thames to London, & Notifying his Arrival to His Majesty's Secretary at War; He is likewise Directed upon his Arrival in London, to deliver over said Invalids to the Agents of the Regts. they belong to, & to pay over to them the pay he may still have in his hands belonging to those men. Some of these men have been in the Hospital here, and so long Absent from their Regiments that they could not be cloathed, they have received an allowance in Lieu of the cloathing that was due, that they might be entirely cleared, & not have any Demands to claim on their Arrival in England.

[signed]
Jeff Amherst

Endorsed: Return of Invalids Under the Command of Captain Gordon, Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8th Decemr. 1760

Enclosed to Lord Barrington, of said Month.

7. Title: A List of Invalids of the Seventy Eight Regiment unfit for any sort of duty, 11 November 1762.

Col. Fraser's Company
Murdock McKenzie

Major Abercrombie's Company
Niel Beatton
Donald McDonald
John Anderson
Alexander McKay
John McIver
John McLeod
Donald Ross

Major Campbell's Company
John Campbell - Corporal
Duncan Campbell
Robert Munroe
John Kenedy
John Ferguson
James Lamb
Donald Cameron
Kennitt McLeod
Peter Hill
John Clerk

Captain Jno McDonnell's Company
Donald McDonald
Donald Stuart
John McDonnel

Captain Simon Fraser's Company
John McKay
Alexander Cormack
Hector McNeil
Donald Munroe

Captain Hugh Fraser's Company
Samuel Cameron
Arch'b McQueen

Captain Hugh Cameron's Company
Alexander Fraser
Evan McMillan
Geo'r Sutherland
James Rhind
Alexander McDougal
John Law
Alex'r Ramsay
Donald Gun Drum'r
John McPhie
Donald McAlister
John Fraser

Captain John Fraser's Company
Donald McGrower [possibly McGrover]
Hugh McTormit
John McKinzie

Captain John Nairn's Company
John McKay, Serj
Alexander Munroe
John McDonnel
James Henderson
William Ross

Captain Alexander Campbell's Company
Donald McPherson
Donald McPherson

Captain Archibald Campbell's Company
Donald Black
Lachlan McIntosh
David Gollan 
John Brown
John Fraser
William Rose

A true copy from the regimental return. 
Thomas Mills, Town Major. Nov 11th

8. Title: Detachment Invalids: Detachment of 78th Regt. belonging to companies in continent, August 1763.

Time of Entry: 16 Aug
Number of Days Victulled: 7

James Gunn, Drummer
Dond. Thompson, Pvt.
Dond. Fraser, Pvt.
Dun Cumming, Pvt.
John Fraser, [illegible] [21 days]
James Robinson, Serjt.
Simon Fraser, Drummer
Alexr. McArthur, Pvt.
Dond. Cuthbert, Pvt.
Lachn. McIntosh, Pvt.
Allan McDonell, Serjt.
Dond. Burke, Drummer
Jno. Coll
Wm. Moore
John Clarke, Serjt.
Alexr. Fraser, Drummer
John Fraser, Private
Dond. McQueen, Pvt.
John Fraser, Drummer
John McDonell, Private
Rand. McDonell, Pvt.
Jas. Crawford, Pvt.
Jno. McDonell, Pvt.
Mary Kennedy

Time of Entry: Aug. 30
Number of Days Victulled: 7

Niel Mahan
Lachn. McKenon
Dun. McDonald.

Sources:
War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids put on board the Nightingale Man of War, 11 June 1759." Correspondence between the Governors of Cape Breton Island and the Commander-in-Chief, New York, 175801762. W.O. 34, vol. 17. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids under the Command of Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. Embarked on board the Unanimity Transport, New York, 9th January 1760." Unknown. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids to be Discharged, 1 May 1760." Correspondence between Commander-in-Chief and Director of Hospitals and various officers in charge of vessels on the Lakes, 1757-63, 1759. W.O. 34, vol. 64. LAC.

Ibid. "Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York, 1 May 1760."

Ibid. "Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal, 1 May 1760."

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids Under the Command of Capt. Gordon of the Royal Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8 Decemr. 1760." Correspondence between Commander-in-Chief and Masters of vessels, etc. 1757-1763. W.O. 34, vol. 60. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "A List of Invalids of the Seventy Eight Regiment unfit for any sort of duty, 11 November 1762." Letters from the Governor of Quebec to the Commanders-in-Chief, New York, 1760-1763. W.O. 34, vol. 2. LAC.

Treasury Board Papers, "Detachment Invalids: Detachment of 78th Regt. belonging to companies in continent, August 1763." Subsistence rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th) 1763. T.1, vol. 422. LAC.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.


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