Colonel Simon Fraser
78th Regiment of Foot, 1757-63

Monday, September 17, 2018

Draught Soldiers to the 60th Regiment

In the summer of 1763, having received King George's Instructions regarding the reduction of the British Armies in North America, the acting generals put in motion their plan for augmenting the three regiments that would remain guarding Quebec. It was decided the 15th, 27th, and 2d Battalion, 60th Royal American Regiment would be assigned this task.

An analysis of the official Subsistence Rolls of the 78th Regiment reveals approximately 358 soldiers remained in North America for this duty. Some were volunteers, others were called upon because of the time remaining on their current enlistment contracts. And while the exact numbers of soldiers transferring to the 2d Battalion, 60th R.A. Regiment cannot be positively identified [due to incomplete and ambiguous reporting on multiple levels,] about 140 draught soldiers from Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Highlanders would join in the summer of 1763.

Draughts of the 78th Regiment
The following names of soldiers in the 2d Battalion, 60th R.A. Regiment, listed with their company commanders, are synonymous with the names of soldiers in the 78th Regiment at the time of its disbandment. This muster is for 182 days ending 24 April 1765.

Colonel James Murray
1. Drummer Alexander Kennedy
2. Private Alexander Cameron
3. Private Alexander Cameron
4. Private Alexander Cameron
5. Private John Cameron
6. Private William Cameron
7. Private Angus Cameron
8. Private William Fraser
9. Private William Forbes
10. Private John Gunn
11. Private Alexander Johnson
12. Private James Knight
13. Private John McDonald
14. Private Murdoch McKinzie
15. Private Donald McKinzie
16. Private Donald McDonald
17. Private Alexander McDonald
18. Private Even McPhee
19. Private James McKinzie
20. Private Walter Simpson

Colonel Frederick Haldiman
21. Private Hector Cameron
22. Private James McDonald
23. Private John Chisolm
24. Private Alexander Fraser
25. Private David Fulerton
26. Private John McKenzie
27. Private Alexander McPherson
28. Private Donald McPherson
29. Private John McPherson
30. Private John McLeod
31. Private Donald McLeod
32. Private James McIntosh
33. Private John McIntosh
34. Private Arthur Rose
35. Private James Smith
36. Private James Wright
37. Private James McDonald
38. Private Peter MacDonald

Captain Thomas Barnsly
39. Corporal Gregor Mcgregor
40. Drummer John Provan
41. Private Donald Black
42. Private Donald Campbele
43. Private Roderick Ferguson
44. Private Duncan Ferguson
45. Private Hugh Grant
46. Private John Gray
47. Private Duncan Gillis
48. Private Coal Henderson
49. Private James Lamb
50. Private John Mcaybin
51. Private Allan McDougall
52. Private John McArthur
53. Private Niel McArthur
54. Private Donald McArthur
55. Private Donald McMillan
56. Private John Munro
57. Private Malcolm McLeod
58. Private Donald Thompson
59. Private William McLeod

Captain Robert Bayard
60. Private Finly Campbell
61. Private William Cameron
62. Private John Fletcher
63. Private John McGilora
64. Private James McPherson
65. Private John Stuart
66. Private John Strachan
67. Private George Thomson
68. Private John McLeod

Captain John Bradstreet
69. Drummer Duncan McKenzie
70. Private John Brown
71. Private Duncan Campbell
72. Private Alexander Fraser
73. Private Alexander Fraser
74. Private Donald Fraser
75. Private Duncan Fraser
76. Private James Fraser
77. Private Hugh Fraser
78. Private James McNouloch
79. Private Collin McCulloch
80. Private Duncan McCra
81. Private Alexander McKenzie
82. Private Duncan McKenzie
83. Private Donald McKenzie
84. Private Alexander McPherson
85. Private John McGregor
86. Private Petter McGregor
87. Private Malcolm McGregor

Captain Robert Brigstock
88. Serjeant Allan MacDonald
89. Serjeant William Watson
90. Private Donald Cameron
91. Private William Fraser
92. Private Hugh Fraser
93. Private John Fraser
94. Private John Fraser
95. Private John Fraser
96. Private William Grubb
97. Private John MacDonald
98. Private Hugh Munro
99. Private Hugh Ross
100. Private William Stewart
101. Private Lachline Sinclair
102. Private Peter Macdonald

Note: Private Duncan Cumming discharged from this company on 29 March 1765. His name does not appear on the muster roll.

Captain John Brown
103. Drummer Thomas Fraser
104. Private Alexander Baine
105. Private John Chisolm
106. Private Donald Cameron
107. Private Duncan Cameron
108. Private John Cameron
109. Private Donald Cameron
110. Private Donald Campbell
111. Private Alexander Ferguson
112. Private Hugh Fraser
113. Private James Fraser
114. Private Lewis Grant
115. Private John Livingston
116. Private John Mackay
117. Private Alexander MacDonald
118. Private William Mills
119. Private Donald Ross
120. Private Ranald Johnston
121. Private Angus MacIntosh

Captain Samuel Holland
122. Drummer John McDonell
123. Private Archibald Bochanan
124. Private John Cameron
125. Private Donald Campbell
126. Private John Clark
127. Private Angus Fletcher
128. Private John Fraser
129. Private John Forbes
130. Private John Kennedy
131. Private John McBean
132. Private Duncan McDougal
133. Private Donald McDonald
134. Private John McDonell
135. Private John McIntosh
136. Private Duncan McNicall
137. Private John Mcpherson
138. Private William Ross
139. Private John Smith
140. Private John Mcpherson

*McDonald/McDonell were used interchangeably.

Notes:
1. Alexander Kennedy appears on the list of soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
39. Gregor Mcgregor appears on the list of soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
40. John Provan appears on the list of soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
48. Probably Colin Henderson.
50. Probably John McBain.
58. Donald Thompson died 27 December 1764.
54. William McLeod deserted 9 June 1765 at Fort Oswegatchie.
59. Probably John McGillivrae.
69. Duncan McKenzie appears on the list of soldiers discharged in North America, 1763. Deserted 1 October 1764 near Crown Point.
78. Probably James McNulloch.
80. Probably Duncan McCraw.
88. Probably Allan McDonnel, who appears on the list of soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
89. William Watson appears on the list of soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
116. Probably John McKay.
117. Probably Alexander McDonald.
120. Ranald Johnson discharged 24 April 1765 at Fort William Augustus.
121. Angus MacIntosh died 15 July 1765 at Fort William Augustus.
123. Archibald Buchanan.
140. John Mcpherson transferred 24 April 1765 at Fort William Augustus to unk.
141. Hugh McDonald deserted 2 June 1765 at Fort William Augustus.

Sources:
War Office Records. 2nd Battalion, 60th Foot, 1764-1783. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists. TNA, W.O. 12/6935.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.].

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Sunday, September 16, 2018

Surname Variations in the 78th Regiment

The company clerks for the 78th Regiment, for the most part, did a wonderful job in transcribing the many different names for over 1500 soldiers. And we would expect to see some variations throughout the hundreds of documents they were charged with upkeeping. From pay accounts to invalid lists and even muster rolls, while many of the surnames are synonymous with present-day spelling, we've uncovered the following variations throughout the Regiment, probably differing with each clerk depending on who the particular scribe may have been. We hope this list assists in your research, and be sure to let us know in the comments section below if we've missed any names. We'll be sure to get those added for you.

Surname Variations in the 78th Regiment

Beaton, Beatton

Bochanan, Buchanan

Brown, Browne

Campbel, Campbele, Campbell, Campble

Cameron, Camron

Canvin, Kinnavin

Carmichael, Carmichail

Carr, Kerr

Chisholm, Chisolm

Clark, Clarke, Clerk

Cormack, Cormak, Cormake

Cumming, Cummings, Cummins

Davison, Davidson

Forbes, Forbis

Forsyth, Forsythe,

Fraser, Frasier, Frazer

Fulerton, Fullerton

Gun, Gunn

Hutcheson, Hutchinson

Johnson, Johnston

Irving, Irwin

Kenedy, Kennedy

Law, Lowe

Levoche, Levock

McAlester, McAlister, McAllester

McAllum, McCallum

McAuley, McCauley

McBain, McBaine, McBean, Mcaybin

McCall, McColl

McCarly, McErbie

McCole, McColl

Mcra, McCraw, McGrah

McDougal, McDougall

McFarlane, McFarlin

McGilbray, McGilora, McGilvray, McGilleray, McGillivray, McGillvray, McGilavrie

McGregar, McGregor, McGrigor

McIntire, McIntyre

Mckay, Mckey

McKenon, McKinnon, McKinven, McKinvin

McLachlan, Mclachlin, McLaughlin

McMillen, McMullen

McNab, McNabb

McNaughton, McNorton

McNicall, McNicoll

McNouloch, McNulloch

McPhee, McPhie

McTormet, McTormitt

MacDonald, Mackdonald, McDonald, McDonel, McDonell*

Mackenzie, McEnzie, McKenzie, McKinn, , McKinzey, McKinzie

Mackay, McKay

MacLean, McLea, McLean, McLay

MacLeod, McLeod, McLoud

Mackniel, McNeal, McNiel

Martin, Martine

Milles, Mills

Monro, Munro, Munroe

More, Moore

Nichols, Nicoll

Robertson, Robinson*

Simson, Simpson

Steward, Stewart, Stuart

Strachen, Strauchen

Thomson, Thompson

Tolmie, Tolmay, Tolmey

Vass, Vauss, Wass

Weir, Wier

Note: McDonald/McDonell, Robertson/Robinson were used interchangeably.

Sources:
War Office Records. Muster Books and Paylists: General, 15th Regiment, 1760-1767. LAC, W.O. 12, vol. 3228, Microfilm C-9202.

War Office Records. 2nd Battalion, 60th Foot, 1764-1783. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists. TNA, W.O. 12/6935.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Six

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
August 1st. 1759. The weather continues to be very hot ; little done ; posted in a picquetted orchard.

2nd. Weather as yesterday. By this day's orders it appears that the General is not very well satisfied with the manner the Grenadiers attacked, as they went on with too great precipitation, also before the troops from the eastward of Montmorency could form to support them. Advanced in so great a hurry that is was impossible to preserve silence or method, not pay proper regard to the directions given them by their commanding officers, which is the very essence of military discipline. We took possession of a redoubt and a 5 gun battery at the foot of the precipice, but was obliged to abandon it without nailing the cannon.

Some imputes this, as follows, to be the reason of the Grenadiers' mistake, viz. that the sailors who landed them huzzaed that the Grenadiers from Orleans and Montmorency had joined. And that a certain captain ordered his drummers to beat the march without the desire of the Commanding Officer, which occasioned the miscarriage of the day. A flag of truce from town with a very antick letter from the French governor relating the prisoners taken at Montmorency.

By intelligence from Admiral Holms, a large body of the enemy are above the town, and is supposed means to cross. This night posted as the former.

3rd. The weather continues hot ; little done ; remained at our post this night in order to march in the morning.

4th. Marched at two o'clock this morning from our cantonments to Village de Couleur where we arrived by break of day ; surrounded several houses, found no person. About 8 o'clock saw a few Canadians and Indians, but could not come up with them. Drove horses, cows, and sheep to camp. On our arrival in camp, was informed of a flag of truce from town with letters for the French prisoners, which is said were all returned unopened. Received orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march against to-morrow's evening with the 15th regt. and 200 Marines under the command of Brigadier-Gen. Murray.

5th. All this day under orders of marching. At twelve o'clock this night marched with the 15th regt. and 200 marines to Goram's post, where we remained from 10 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock evening of the 6th inst. On the beach waiting the return of flat-bottomed boats, which did not arrive for fear of being discovered, as our embarkation was to be made with the greatest secrecy ; when we thought we were liable to be discovered we drew off from the beach, and took position in some houses about a mile west of Goram's post.

6th Marched from last night's posts, and crossed the River Else Chemin with the 15th regt. and 200 marines ; about one hour thereafter, embarked on board the Sunderland man-of-war, and the remaining part of the troops distributed to the different vessels proportionate to the vessels' accomodation, where the whole remained all night.

7th. Remained on board the Sunderland man-of-war till three o'clock this evening, when Capt. Simon Fraser's co. of Light Infantry were ordered to be embarked on board the sloop Good Intent. A fine open country on both sides of the river, 18 leagues above or west of the town. At twelve o'clock this night were ordered to be ready to embark on board the flat-bottom boats ; counter-ordered at two o'clock in the morning of the 8th inst.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Invalid Soldiers of the 78th Regiment, 1759-1763

Invalid soldiers were typically injured soldiers fully capable of performing light garrison duties, but not cleared to participate in extended campaigns. They were given duties such as gate guard, cook's assistant, or night watch patrols until such a time when funding and availability permitted their transport back home to Royal Chelsea Hospital in London to attend to their injuries. However, some of these men of Fraser's 78th Regiment, as described by Governor Murray in a letter dated October 20, 1762, were certainly not well off and appear to be in a very bad way.

"...Frasers Regt. is not as strong as it appears to be on paper, I have the honor to inclose a Return of the Invalids of that Corps who are unfit for Garrison duty, and there are many besides who are incapable of taking the field. As those unfit for any duty are kept here at a great expense to the Crown, I did propose to Major Abercrombie to send them Home by the Aldborough, but he told me he believed it was not your intention to discharge any of them, I therefore conclude there are particular Reasons for keeping them on the Roles, some of them want legs, & some arms."

In an excerpt from this December 1762 letter, Governor Murray continues in addressing the situation. Given the time of year, winter freeze most likely forced his decision to refrain from sending the men home at that time.

"...There will not now probably be an opportunity to send home the Invalids of the 78th Regt. 'till the disolution of the Corps, if it shall turn out otherwise, I shall be carefull that none are discharged, but real objects of compassion."

Documents
The following is a collection of invalid soldiers of Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Regiment, 1759-1763, extracted from various documents.

1. Title: Return of Invalids put on board the Nightingale Man of War who Sailed from Louisbourg Harbour June 11th 1759.

Regiments:
Artillery: 2
22 Regiment: 10
35 Regiment: 6
40 Regiment: 10
43 Regiment: 10
45 Regiment: 11
47 Regiment: 1
63 Regiment: 10

Total: 60

2. Title: Return of Invalids under the Command of Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. Embarked on board the Unanimous Transport, New York, 9th January 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Archd. Stewart
Robert Ross
John Cameron
John Mcleron
Donald Livingstone
John McLeod
George Crookshanks
Hector McTeal
Hugh McMullen
Neal McIntosh
Alexr. McCall
John McDougall
John Cameron

The above men are all paid to the Twenty fourth December 1759, and have signed to that purpose on the back of their Discharges, and Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. has received for them sixty one days pay to the Twenty third of February Inclusive. And he has my orders upon his arrival at Portsmouth, or wheresoever he may arrive to notify his coming to the Secretary at War, waiting his orders for his preceding to London, either by sea if there should be an order for it or by Land agreeable to the march route, he may Receive for that purpose. He is directed upon his arrival at London to Deliver over said Invalids to the Agents of the Regiment they belong to and to pay over to them the pay he may still have in his hands belonging to those men.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
James Taylor
John McDonald

The above [two] men are Discharged and not Recommended to Chelsea, but have Desired passage to England.

[signed]
Jeff Amherst

3. Title: Return of Invalids to be discharged, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Alexr. Kenedy: Old Age
Murdoch McKinzey: Old Age
Wm. McLeod: Old Age & Rhumatic
David Gallen: Old Age
Danl. Campble: Old Age
Robt. Monroe: Old Age
Keneth McLeod: Old Age
Alexr. McDougald: Old Age
John Fraser: Old Age
Danl. Black: Old Age
James Fraser: Old Age
John McNab: Old Age
Niel Beaton: Old Age
Archd. McQuin: Old Age

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of the Invalids to be Discharged
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

4. Title: Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Duncan McGregar
Peter Thompson

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York.
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

5. Title: Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Saml. McDonald
Peter McNiel
John Campbel
James Tolmay
Charles Robinson
Laughlin McIntosh
David Morrison
Geo: Sutherland
Alexr. McDonald

[signed]
John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

6. Title: Return of Invalids Under the Command of Capt. Gordon of the Royal Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8 Decemr. 1760.

78th Regiment
Andrew Kennedy
Neal McKay
Charles Robinson
James Tolmie
David Morrison

The above men are all paid to the 24th Decemr. 1760 & have signed to that purpose on the back of their Discharges; Capt. Gordon of the Royal Regt. has received for them sixty one days pay to the 23d. Feby. Inclusively, and he has my orders upon his Arrival at Portsmouth, or wheresoever he may Arrive, to apply to the Commanding Naval Officer, for a Convoy to conduct the vessell, in which the said Invalids are, up the River Thames to London, & Notifying his Arrival to His Majesty's Secretary at War; He is likewise Directed upon his Arrival in London, to deliver over said Invalids to the Agents of the Regts. they belong to, & to pay over to them the pay he may still have in his hands belonging to those men. Some of these men have been in the Hospital here, and so long Absent from their Regiments that they could not be cloathed, they have received an allowance in Lieu of the cloathing that was due, that they might be entirely cleared, & not have any Demands to claim on their Arrival in England.

[signed]
Jeff Amherst

Endorsed: Return of Invalids Under the Command of Captain Gordon, Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8th Decemr. 1760

Enclosed to Lord Barrington, of said Month.

7. Title: A List of Invalids of the Seventy Eight Regiment unfit for any sort of duty, 11 November 1762.

Col. Fraser's Company
Murdock McKenzie

Major Abercrombie's Company
Niel Beatton
Donald McDonald
John Anderson
Alexander McKay
John McIver
John McLeod
Donald Ross

Major Campbell's Company
John Campbell - Corporal
Duncan Campbell
Robert Munroe
John Kenedy
John Ferguson
James Lamb
Donald Cameron
Kennitt McLeod
Peter Hill
John Clerk

Captain Jno McDonnell's Company
Donald McDonald
Donald Stuart
John McDonnel

Captain Simon Fraser's Company
John McKay
Alexander Cormack
Hector McNeil
Donald Munroe

Captain Hugh Fraser's Company
Samuel Cameron
Arch'b McQueen

Captain Hugh Cameron's Company
Alexander Fraser
Evan McMillan
Geo'r Sutherland
James Rhind
Alexander McDougal
John Law
Alex'r Ramsay
Donald Gun Drum'r
John McPhie
Donald McAlister
John Fraser

Captain John Fraser's Company
Donald McGrower [possibly McGrover]
Hugh McTormit
John McKinzie

Captain John Nairn's Company
John McKay, Serj
Alexander Munroe
John McDonnel
James Henderson
William Ross

Captain Alexander Campbell's Company
Donald McPherson
Donald McPherson

Captain Archibald Campbell's Company
Donald Black
Lachlan McIntosh
David Gollan 
John Brown
John Fraser
William Rose

A true copy from the regimental return. 
Thomas Mills, Town Major. Nov 11th

8. Title: Detachment Invalids: Detachment of 78th Regt. belonging to companies in continent, August 1763.

Time of Entry: 16 Aug
Number of Days Victulled: 7

James Gunn, Drummer
Dond. Thompson, Pvt.
Dond. Fraser, Pvt.
Dun Cumming, Pvt.
John Fraser, [illegible] [21 days]
James Robinson, Serjt.
Simon Fraser, Drummer
Alexr. McArthur, Pvt.
Dond. Cuthbert, Pvt.
Lachn. McIntosh, Pvt.
Allan McDonell, Serjt.
Dond. Burke, Drummer
Jno. Coll
Wm. Moore
John Clarke, Serjt.
Alexr. Fraser, Drummer
John Fraser, Private
Dond. McQueen, Pvt.
John Fraser, Drummer
John McDonell, Private
Rand. McDonell, Pvt.
Jas. Crawford, Pvt.
Jno. McDonell, Pvt.
Mary Kennedy

Time of Entry: Aug. 30
Number of Days Victulled: 7

Niel Mahan
Lachn. McKenon
Dun. McDonald.

Sources:
War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids put on board the Nightingale Man of War, 11 June 1759." Correspondence between the Governors of Cape Breton Island and the Commander-in-Chief, New York, 175801762. W.O. 34, vol. 17. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids under the Command of Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. Embarked on board the Unanimity Transport, New York, 9th January 1760." Unknown. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids to be Discharged, 1 May 1760." Correspondence between Commander-in-Chief and Director of Hospitals and various officers in charge of vessels on the Lakes, 1757-63, 1759. W.O. 34, vol. 64. LAC.

Ibid. "Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York, 1 May 1760."

Ibid. "Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal, 1 May 1760."

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids Under the Command of Capt. Gordon of the Royal Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8 Decemr. 1760." Correspondence between Commander-in-Chief and Masters of vessels, etc. 1757-1763. W.O. 34, vol. 60. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "A List of Invalids of the Seventy Eight Regiment unfit for any sort of duty, 11 November 1762." Letters from the Governor of Quebec to the Commanders-in-Chief, New York, 1760-1763. W.O. 34, vol. 2. LAC.

Treasury Board Papers, "Detachment Invalids: Detachment of 78th Regt. belonging to companies in continent, August 1763." Subsistence rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th) 1763. T.1, vol. 422. LAC.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.


Monday, September 3, 2018

Private Duncan Cumming, 60th, 78th Regiments

Born in Scotland [date/town unknown], Private Duncan Cumming enlisted in the army and initially served six years with the 78th Foot in various campaigns in North America. At the conclusion of the war in the summer of 1763, his name appears on two separate muster reports as having received seven days subsistence pay: 78th Foot: A Detachment of Invalids, dated 16 August, and in Colonel Fraser's Company on the Subsistence rolls of Fraser's Highlanders, dated 23 August. At this time, it is uncertain as to why the two separate musters. About 25 August, he, then, transferred to the 2d Battalion, 60th Foot, and selected to remain in North America [along with the 15th Foot and 27th Foot] to continue to provide a guard for the government in Montreal, where he served an additional 19 months in Captain Robert Brigstock's Company and discharged on 29 March 1765.

Discharge Certificate
[front page]
By Captain Robert Bayard Esq.
Commanding the Second Battn of the Royal American Regiment

These are to certify that the Bearer hereof Duncan Cumming having Served Honestly and faithfully for the space of Eight years, part of which in the Late 78th & part in the above said Regiment and in Captn Robert Brigstocks Compy, but having found a good man in his place, he is hereby Discharged, Having first Received a just account of all his pay & appears of pay cloathing of all Sort, and all other of his just Demands from the time of his Entering in the said Regiment to this day, being the Day of his Discharge as appears by his Receipt on the other side.

Given under my Hand at Montreal this 29th day of March 1765.

[signed]
Robt Bayard

To all whom it may concern

[back page]
I do hereby acknowledge to have Received a just account of all My pay arrears of pay cloathing of all Sorts, and all other Demands from the time of My Entering in the Regiment to this day, being the day of My Discharge.
Witness My hand this 29th day of March 1765

[signed]
Duncan Cumming

Personal Affidavit
Province of
Lower Canada
to wit:

Personally appeared before me - 
James Hughes, Esquire, one of His Majesty's Commissioners of the Peace for the District of Montreal, Duncan Cumming, who being sworn on the Holy Evangelists, made Oath and with that he has not as yet received His Majesty's bounty of Lands for his past services in this Province or in any other of His Majesty's Colonies in America, nor any gratuity whatever in lieu thereof, and to which he is entitled agreeable to the Royal Instructions for himself, his Wife, and seven Children namely, Margaritte, aged 25, Flora 19, Janet 18, Duncan 17, Isabel 15, Alexander 12, & John 6 years 1.

[signed]
Duncan Cuming

Sworn Before me at
Montreal this 29th Day
of March, 1800.

[signed]
James Hughes: J.P.

Certificate of Claims
Certificate of Claims for part of the waste Lands of the Crown by Duncan Cumming, on behalf of himself, his Wife & seven Children.
That he served in the 78th Regiment at the Reduction of Louisburgh and Quebec ~ 
That he also served in the 60th Regiment, and at all times in the Militia particularly at the taking of Colonel Allen prisoner in the year 1775. ~
That he had been settled in Canada upwards of thirty two years, is now far advanced in years and in low circumstances. ~
That he is well known to us and worthy of His Majesty's Bounty. ~ 

Montreal, 29th March 1800.

Except as to the first article
I know the rest ~

[signed]
James McGill
Richd. Dobie
Edw. Wm. Gray

Note: His official discharge paperwork from Colonel Fraser's 78th Regiment has never been located, and the claim of militia service in 1775 remains unsubstantiated.

Census Returns
January 1785, Montreal, Duncan Cummings. [Names only].

Vital Records
Marriages:
Listed as Duncan Cummings, he is most likely the same man who married Agathe Charpentier on 18 November 1771 as recorded in the parish register of the Anglican, Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, Quebec.

Note: No additional Cummings marriages located in this parish between 1766-1784

Christenings [Parish of Montreal]:
Margaret Cummins
Birth: 8 August 1773
Baptized: 12 September 1773

George Cummins
Birth: 24 May 1777
Baptized: 29 May 1777

Florence Cummins
Birth: 18 December 1778
Baptized: 24 December 1778

Jane Cummins
Birth: 5 April 1781
Baptized: 8 April 1781

Isabel Cumming [Montreal]
Baptized: 12 March 1786
Listed as daughter of Duncan Cumming of Montreal.

Note: Due diligence should be performed to confirm these are the children of Duncan and Agathe.

Notarial Records
Name: Duncan Cummings & Agathe Charpentier
Type: Autres
Record Date: 31 May 1806
Record Place: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Notary: Guy, Louis
Record Description: Compe et partage
Source Citation:
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec; Montréal, Quebec, Canada; District: Montréal; Title: Guy, Louis (1801-1842).

Name: Duncan Cummings & Agathe Charpentier
Type: Inventaire
Record Date: 6 Feb. 1806
Record Place: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Notary: Guy, Louis
Record Description: Inventaire
Source Citation:
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec; Montréal, Quebec, Canada; District: Montréal; Title: Guy, Louis (1801-1842).

Sources:
"Schedule of certificates and discharges of non-commissioned officers and soldiers reduced in America." Lower Canada Land Papers, RG 1 L 3, vol. 157, No. 52. Public Archives Canada.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

“Marriage record of Duncan Cummings and Agathe Charpentier, Nov. 1771.” Genealogie Quebec, Drouin Institute, Sept. 2018, www.genealogiequebec.com.

“List of English inhabitants in the City of Montreal in January 1785.” Civil and Provincial Secretary Lower Canada ["S" Series], 1760-1840 [RG 4, A 1, vol. 27], Microfilm C-3000, Public Archives Canada.

"Births, marriages, and deaths recorded in the register of the parish of Montreal, 1766-1787." [M.G. 8, G 19, vol. 22], Microfilm C-3023, Public Archives Canada.

Bethune, Reverend John. "Baptism of Isabel Cumming." Omissions of marriages and baptisms in the 84th Regiment. LDS FHL, SLC, UT, Microfilm: 004507724, image: 191.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Five

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
July 25th, 1759. Arrived this morning on the lower settlements of the North side, the River en Chemin, Capt. Fraser's Co. having the van. Seized about 300, including men, women and children, 150 head of cattle, some horses, and several sheep. When we came near the above camp forage was forwarded with Capt. Delaune's Company, as also the prisoners.

Major Dalling marched to Capt. Goram's house, where the detachment took post till further orders.

26th. Marched from last night's post to our cantonments, where we were informed of Capt. Delaune;s sending last night a corporal and six men with orders to Major Dalling, who were attacked on the communications by twenty Canadians (as the corporal) said. One Rigby, our surgeon's mate, who accompanied the corporal's party was killed with 2 men, 3 taken prisoners, only one escaped with the corporal, who confirmed the above, as also that on returning the corporal killed one of the Canadians.

Three of the prisoners from Capt. Delanne's Co. of those taken and sent to camp, recommended to the particular care of the captain. The evening of the 24th curt. Colonel Fraser set out with 300 men of his regt. to take prisoners, and bring cattle ; as they were marching some miles, east of Beaumont, they were fired on by one man only (as is said) which wounded the Colonel in the thigh, and broke Capt. McPherson's arm.

After arriving in camp we learnt that the Colonels van guard was fired on before day, who, according to others, retired into the wood, and he stepping to some small eminence to give directions to a part of his detachment to move on in a manner formerly directed, his voice making it known to the enemy where the commanding officer stood, three of them directed their fire up that way, which wounded the Colonel and Capt. McPherson in the right thighs. 

27th. Remained in cantonments all day ; nothing done in camp. In the night the enemy sent down one fire raft containing one hundred stages, lined with combustibles (did no harm).

28th. A deserter from the enemy to the westward of Montmorency ; little intelligence.

29th. Extreme hot weather ; 13 companys under orders all day ; it was supposed they were to cross Montmorency Falls, and attack a redoubt ; nothing was done. Capt. Ross and Lt. Nairn of Colonel Fraser's Regt. fought a duel this morning, very much to the discredit to the former.

30th. MORNING INTELLIGENCE. A deserter from one of the grenadier cos. on the Island of Orleans going over to the enemy is the reason nothing was done yesterday.

30th. a landing was to be endeavoured the 29th, consisting of two rgts. from Point Levy, and 13 cos. grenadiers from orleans, under cover of the fire of two frigates running on shore at high water, which time of the two regts. landing, the troops on the north shore were to cross Montmorency Falls, ----- Webb's regt. to march along the south shore the length of Goram's and return in the evening to their former post. The reason of which designing to draw the attention to the quarter. Posted this night by the battery as usual.

31st. At 12 o'clock this day, two catts with 6-pounders (in place of the supposed frigates) ran on shore, at which time the troops embarked in floats and in boats ; the many motions made by them gave the enemy time to assemble there in force where an attack was most probable. The two catts and the battery to the eastward of Montmorency continued firing till about five o'clock evening, when the 13 cos. Grenadiers from Orleans and the 2 regts. from Point Levy landed on the beach at which time the Montmorency troops crossed below the Falls, it being low water. The Grenadiers formed, and marched up to attack the entrenchments but by the steepness of a hill directly above them it was found impracticable, sustained a heavy fire for some minutes without their firing a shot, being obliged to retire. Amherst's and the Highlanders covered their retreat, which was done in good order, and without confusion, carrying off the wounded. The troops to the eastward of Montmorency returned to their camp with Fraser's regt., the Grenadiers to Orleans, and Amherst's to Point Levy. As the ships could not be got off there was a necessity of burning them. Killed, 38 ; wounded, 62 ; missing 1.

Faints made. Brigadier Murray commanded Anstruther's regt. and a body of Light Infantry, with orders to move on as if intending to cross above the aforesaid Falls, and if possible to effect it ; and Colonel Burton with Webb's regt. marched along the southern shore in order to DRAW THE ATTENTION OF THE ENEMY their WAY.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Four

July 18th, 1759. This morning General Wolfe reconoitered the opposite or north shore above the town ; seems to think a landing practicable.

In the afternoon Major Dalling marched with two companies along the south shore three miles to the westward of our post, in order to look for places most convenient for the troops to ascend at the landing on the north shore. He found two or three.

On our return to our cantonments we were ordered to take a little rest, as we were to escort General Wolfe in the morning.

July 19th, 1759. At 10 o'clock last night the General came to our cantonments in order to see the shipping pass the town ; at 10 o'clock the Sunderland and Squirrell men-of-war with two transports passed the batterys ; 31 shot fired at them, none of which touched.

Matched to escort the General, who went on board the Sutherland in a whaleboat ; at 3 o'clock in the morning Captain Carden and Fraser's company with some rangers marched to a settlement about 7 miles up the river above the town, to endeavour to take prisoners. We crossed a river near it with not the proper precaution ; discovered two or three straggling fellows who got off ; it seemed by the fires in the houses they had been inhabited lately. Found a note on the door of a house begging that we should not set it on fire. Returned to our cantonments by 10 o'clock at night, and on our arrival marched with the General 4 miles back ; the same communication we came by, where we remained all night. About 11 o'clock the enemy sett up the Indian hoop, and fired small arms ; most probably occasioned to a small alarm.

20th. Last night the General went on board the Sunderland ; at eight o'clock this morning marched to our cantonments ; on our way way we took a Canadian and his boy about 12 years old prisoners ; one of our men fired at him, and not withstanding his seeing it impossible to escape, being surrounded by 100 men, he returned the fire, and killed the soldier a Highlander belonging to Capt. Fraser's company. It was with great difficulty his life was suffered from the fury of the men who were exasperated at the scoundrel's action. He seemed to know little excepting the haunts of the straggling inhabitants.

20th. This evening an intelligent deserter from the enemy confirmed that the 13th curt. 1500 men having crossed the river in order to attack our battery and post, but on landing a false alarm made them fire on each other ; two Canadians were killed, the Indians fled then, and the detachment returned without presuming to look at one of our sentinels.

21st. Rainy weather ; marched to escort Admiral Holmes to Capt. Goram's post, being 2 miles from our post. He greatly difficulted how to get on board the shipping as they lay 6 miles above Goram's.

Arrived the General from on board the Sunderland, who informed us he had ordered Colonel Carleton to land at Point au Tremble with Amherst's and Fraser's Grenadiers, and a small detachment of the 3rd B. of R. Americans, which order was put in execution at daybreak in the morning of the 22nd. They were opposed by some Canadians and Indians, who gave way soon. Fraser's Grenadiers pursued too far, killing two Indians, and obliging the remainder to fly, leaving everything behind. Major Prevost, Lu Mc Douwel, and one volunteer wounded, with 14 men killed.

22nd. Marched from Goram's post as an escort to the General ; on our return to the cantonments received orders of marching. At night the town much bombarded, set on fire, and burnt most of the night a good many shot and shell ; two ships, endeavouring to pass the batterys sustained most of the fire, was obliged to set back with contrary winds, without which they could pass.

The lady's taken yesterday returned this day ; Capt. Smith, Aide de Camp to Gen. Wolfe, not politely used by the French in town.

23rd. Remained in our cantonments all day under orders for marching ; detained for want of a guide. At 1 o'clock this night marched the whole detachment of Light Infantry, with 30 Rangers, under the command of Major Dalling. At the time of our departure to town set on fire, and burnt most of the night.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Three

July 11, 1759. Some cannonading from town.

The enemy has changed their encampments to prevent the annoyance of a battery erected on the opposite side of the Falls of Montmorency, by putting themselves under cover of a hill, which has rendered our battery useless. But notwithstanding it's to be hoped that our engineers will use their utmost efforts to reconoitre their situation, and erect on some advantageous ground another for their amusement.

Rafts begun this day for transporting men. They are almost the same as projected by the Chevalier Tolar'd, excepting some bad alterations made by ....Frizer of the Royal Americans, one of the many quacks we import from foreign services. Major Dalling's detachment marched from Point Levy to the battery (erecting where the General and Admiral formerly reconoitred).

At one o'clock in the morning of the 12th inst. was the last gun mounted. The battery consists of 5 13-in. mortars, and 6 32-pounders.

12th. This morning the marines took post in a redoubt above the battery.

Towards noon some boats discovered coming down the river and landing men, among whom was seen red coats. It's feared the enemy have made prisoners from General Amherst's army.

Major Dalling's detachment to the westward of the battery (posted).

About 10 o'clock this night opened the battery on the town, to where and from whence a great number of shot and shells were fired. None of us hurt.

13th. Nothing extraordinary. Posted this night to the right of the battery. Neither shot or shells from either sides.

14th. Good weather. Little done. Posted this night to the right of the battery. A few shot and shell fired from our battery, but none from town. Great cannonading to the east of Montmorency by the enemy's battery's

15th. Little done on this side. Fortifying the encampment to the eastward of Montmorency.

About 12 o'clock this night Capt. Goram of the Rangers found three whale-boats, which he lodged in a copse of wood, and it's thought he intends to surprise a schooner close by the town. 

16th. A very smart cannonading from town, which has been in fire most of the day. A new bomb-battery erecting to the right of the former.

This night three ships of war were to pass the town ; and after posting the men under proper cover for saving them from shot and shell we were at length disappointed : the reason not known.

At 12 o'clock this night, Capt. Goram set out in order to surprise the schooner aforesaid, but after padling one hour he returned to Major Dalling's post saying he could not find it, which was pretty extraordinary as the schooner still remained in the same creek as formerly, and the distance from the shore could not exceed half a mile.

17th. The reasons of the ships not passing this town last night is imputed to want of wind, which is just possible as there was a good breeze on shore.

5 men killed and three scalped by the enemy to eastward of Montmorency. Captain Coseman of the ----- regt. dangerously wounded, he being fired on when placing some sentinels at an advanced post.

A soldier of Capt. Carden's company of Light Infantry deserted to the enemy, after killing his comrade.

A deserter from the enemy informs that they intend to attack our battery at Point Levy, also Colonel Burton's post ; saying that the 13th inst. 1600 men crossed the river on that intention, but returned the 14th on pretence of being discovered.

The weather continues good. Little doing. Posted by the battery as usual ; neither shot or shell during the night by either sides.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, July 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Two


July 4, 1759. This morning a flag of truce sent into town. In the afternoon another sent from town ; the business not known ; excessive rain and thunder, succeeding by lightning. The Light Infantry under orders of marching all this day.

5th. Colonel Burton, with the 48th regiment and Major Dalling's Light Infantry, took post opposite the south side of the town. The General and Admiral (Saunders) reconoitered the post, and it's expected a bomb-battery will be erected there.

6th. This morning one of Admiral Saunder's barges was taken by some canoes with armed men in them. The sailors got so near on shore that they leaped into the water and escaped, excepting one wounded man who was taken.

Remained under arms where posted the evening of the 5th till four o'clock this evening, when we marched to the camp at Point Levy.

At twelve o'clock this night marched to -------; lay in ambush for a party of Arcadians and Miomac Indians.

7th. Lay in a most disagreeable swamp inclosed with wood, where we discovered nothing ; the men were not so silent and attentive as was wished. At 10 o'clock at night marched from here, examining all the houses as we went along, and halted at the church of Beaumont, where the men was lodged. Consisted of 300, the party, 12 miles from camp at Point Levy.

8th. Lay in Beaumont Church most of this day. At noon discovered men walking at the border of the woods. Several parties sent out to endeavour to make prisoners. None taken. The parties brought in several sheep, hogs, fowls, &c., with a great quantity of household furniture and wearing apparel, at which conduct Major Dalling seem'd greatly offended. All the household furniture and wearing apparel deposited in the church of Beaumont, with a manifesto fixed on the church door.

9th. Marched from Beaumont to Point Levy. On our arrival was informed that General Wolfe the night before had landed on the north side of the River St. Lawrence, and to the eastward of Montmorency Falls with the Grenadiers Light Infantry, and most of the 2nd and 3rd brigades. The regiments at Point Levy struck their tents, and remained in the woods for 12 hours, when they encamped on their old ground, which consequently made the enemy imagine the whole were on the north shore, and gave time to General Wolfe to take post and fortify his camp.

10th. A soldier of the 48th regiment deserted to the enemy from his post.

Major Dalling, with two companies of his detachment, marched to reinforce Colonel Burton. Towards evening great thunder, lightning, and rain. Little done.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, July 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week One

JOURNAL

OF THE PARTICULAR TRANSACTIONS

DURING THE SIEGE OF QUEBEC

AT ANCHOR OPPOSITE THE ISLAND OF ORLEANS

JULY 26TH 1759

BY AN OFFICER OF FRASER'S REGT


Prefatory note: The name of the author of this journal is not known, but it is supposed to have been an officer, or non-commissioned officer in "Fraser's Highlanders." The original manuscript is property of Mr. Galloway, of Inverness. In comparing the dates of the various events recorded, with those given by other writers of the period, it is perceived the original author is generally accurate. There are also many particulars given of the last days of the Siege, which are of exceptional value.

The Siege of Quebec

June 27, 1759. This morning the greatest part of the army landed on the Island of Orleans. Afternoon of this day it blew excessively hard, the consequence of which occasioned a great many boats sunk and staved, particularly several transports driving from their anchors and running on shore.

28th. The remaining part of the army landed, at which a sudden gale of wind arised, which endangered the troops debarking, as also damaging the ship greatly. More boats lost.

29th. This morning about 1 o'clock the enemy, by favour of a N.W. wind and ebb of tide, sent down several fire ships and rafts with an intention to destroy the fleets : but the activity of the sailors with their boats and grapplings prevented any bad consequence attending thereto.

Major Dalling's detachment of Light Infantry under arms all night occasioned to an alarm given by Capt. ------- of Kennedy's regiment leaving his post, and coming into camp at an unseasonable hour.

The Louisbourg Grenadiers, Major Dalling's Light Infantry, and two companies of Rangers took post on the west end of the Island of Orleans, discovered four separate encampments of the enemy (north side of the river), twixt the Falls of Montmorency and the town, being 10 miles distance, strongly fortified, being the general rendez-vous called Beauport where the enemy were constantly employed in rendering defensive from the first appearance of our fleet in the River St. Lawrence.

This evening 6 men wounded on the west end of the Island of Orleans, belonging to Amherst's and Kennedy's regiments.

30th. Amherst's, Kennedy's, Webb's, and Fraser's regiments decamped from the west end of the Island of Orleans, embarked on board flat-bottomed boats, crossed the river St. Lawrence, and landed on the south side. Had some picquering with the enemy's Irregulars, of which they killed four, took THREE prisoners, and beat the remainder off from a post they occupied opposite to Cape Diamond ; after which the army took post at Point Levy, and remained quiet all night without the least molestation.

This morning two grenadiers of Whitemore's regiment were scalped, and most cruelly mangled on the east end of the Island of Orleans by three lurking Indians, who, after the murder, made their escape in their canoes to the north shore occupied by the enemy.

July 1st. Bragg's, Lasscell's, and Anstruther's regiments, under the command of Brigadier Townshend, marched from their former camp on the west end to the east point of the Island of Orleans. And the Light Infantry from thence to Point Levy on our arrival.... was informed that the 4 regiments posted here suffered by a cannonading from floating batteries or boats mounting 6 and 9-pounders. Amherst had 4 killed and wounded, and Fraser's 12 men.

2nd. A large detachment from the four regiments under the command of Brigadier-General Moncton, flanked by the Light Infantry, escorted General Wolfe, who went a reconoitering two miles to the west-ward of the camp at Point Levy. Discovered a few Canadians and Indians who fired on us from behind a bush. NONE HURT. 

3rd. Very rainy weather ; nothing done ; all quiet.

Source:
Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Friday, June 15, 2018

Lt. Hugh Fraser Transfers to the 78th Regiment, Oct. 1761

Writing from Staten Island in the fall of 1761, General Jeffrey Amherst informs the Honorable Governor James Murray regarding the recent commission sold to Lieutenant Hugh Fraser, 27th Inniskilling Regiment, and his impending transfer to the 78th Regiment. Military transfers of this nature were often necessary to maintain the proper distribution of troop levels across the regiments during the campaign.





Staten Island 25th Octr. 1761

Dear Sir,
I Have granted a Commission to Lieut. Fraser of the 27th. to the Company in Frasers, and he now Sets out to Joyn the Regt. and will Deliver you this with my other Letters.

I am, with great Truth & Regard
                                                                                       
Dear Sir,  &c.

Jeff Amherst
______

Copy
______

P.S. The Company is Capt: Fraser's who sells out.

Hon: Govr. Murray.

Note: Lt. Hugh Fraser is the only Fraser officer in 1762 to be identified as having previously served with the 27th Inniskilling Regiment. A full list of officers to have served with the 78th Regiment is located here.

Source:
Jeffrey Amherst, "Letters from the Commanders-in-Chief, New York to the Governor of Quebec, 1760-1763." War Office Records: Amherst Papers. W.O. 34, vol. 3.

Ford, Worthington Chauncey. British Officers Serving in America, 1754-1774. Boston, 1894.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.


Friday, June 1, 2018

General Forbes' Letter to Colonel Simon Fraser, Sep. 1757

Writings of General John Forbes
New York Septr. 16th 1757.~
Sir,

I am commanded by the Earl of Loudoun, to acquaint you, that as your Regiment is ordered directly to New York, that you will order Returns to be made out, to be deliver'd in upon your Arrival there.

- 1st: A General Return of the Battalion, with the Numbers of your Supernumeraries.
- 2d: A Copy of your Recruiting Accounts, stating the Time from Whence the Pay of the Battalion commenced; the Sum allowed by the Government for inlisting each man; With a true State of the Sums paid for Recruiting and Subsisting each Man. As also the Number that the Regiment consisted of, from the 24th of December last, and so forward weekly to the 24th. of June.

You are likewise to give and Account to what Time the Pay of the Regiment has been issued from the Pay Office into your Agent's Hands; and to what Time the Regiment has received Money for their Subsistence; and what Provision is made for supporting the Regiment that his Lordship may give Orders accordingly.
In Case that his Lordship be gone from hence, before your Arrival, You are to take the Earliest Opportunity of transmitting the above to his Lordship, wherever he may chance to be. And in His Absence, you will find Orders Left here with the Commanding Officer, How you are further to proceed. I am

                                                                               Sir,
                                                                                    Your most obt. Humble Servant.
                                                                                             Jno. Forbes.
Lt. Colo. Fraser

-------
Copy
-------

[Endorsed:] Copy. A Letter from Colonel John Forbes Adjt. Genl. to Lieut. Colonel Fraser New York Sept. 16th 1757.

Source:
James, Alfred Procter. Writings of General John Forbes Relating to His Service in North America. Collegiate Press, Menasha, Wisconsin, 1938.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.  All rights reserved.  

Tuesday, May 15, 2018

Payroll Account of Thomas Russell, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758

Private Thomas Russell, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758
Much like today, accounting books were used in the eighteenth century for documenting military pay and other related expenses accrued over periods of time. The payroll account of Thomas Russell, 78th Regiment, covers the period of July 5, 1757, through April 24, 1758. 

Note: Category headers and bracketed script have been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document. Additionally, it would not be uncommon to discover accounting errors as these were gentlemen who created inaccuracies the same as you and I.

Income

To 9 Weeks Pay & arrears from y'e. 5th July to y'e. 5th September
     £: 1. 10. 9
To 5 Weeks arrears of Pay from y'e. 5th Sept'r. to 10th Oct'r.
     £: 0. 8. 4
To 3 Weeks arrears @ 5p week
     £: 0. 1. 3
To 6 Weeks Pay & arrears from y'e. 17th Oct'r. to y'e. 28th Nov'r. 1757
     £: 1. 0. 6
To 21 Weeks arrears of Pay from y'e. 28th Nov'r. 1757 to y'e. 24th Apr'l. 1758
     £: 1. 15. 0

[Total]  £: 4. 15. 10

Expenses

To 1 Pair Shoes & 1 Nap Sack
     £: 0. 6. 6
To 2 Haversacks & 1 Cocade
     £: 0. 2. 8
To 1 Pair Garters & 1 Sett buckles
     £: 0. 1. 4
To 1 Kilt & 1 Small belt
     £: 0. 1. 4
To 1 Turn Key Screw brush & wire
     £: 0. 0. 9
To Provisions at Glasgow
     £: 0. 4. 8
To Spruce Beer at Halifax
     £: 0. 2. 8
To 2 Cheq'd. Shirts
     £: 0. 7. 0
To 10 Months Stoppages for y'e. Payment Serjt. @ 1p month
     £: 0. 0. 10
To 7 Months D'o. for y'e. Barber @ 2p D’o.
     £: 0. 1. 2
To y'e. Proportion of a Cook's Frock
£: 0. 0. 8
To Cash given you at Fairf'd. & Boston
     £: 1. 8. 9

  [Total]  £: 2. 17. 7

 [Income minus Expenses equals Cash Paid]

To Cash Paid as Bala'ce of Above
       £: 1. 18. 3

Halifax 4th May 1758 Rec'd. y'e. above Bala'ce. in full of my Pay & arrears of Pay from y'e. Date of my Attestation to y'e. 24th Apr. last as witness of my hand.     [his mark]  Thos. X  Ruſsell

Source:
Major James Clephane, "Payroll account of Private Thomas Russell, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758." Military Account Book at Halifax. NAS GD125-34-5, pp. 181-82.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Tuesday, May 1, 2018

Payroll Account of Serjeant John McGregor, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758

Serjeant John McGregor, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758
Much like today, accounting books were used in the eighteenth century for documenting military pay and other related expenses accrued over periods of time. The payroll account of Serjeant John McGregor, 78th Regiment, covers the period of July 5, 1757, through April 24, 1758. 

Note: Category headers and bracketed script have been added for clarification and do not appear in the original document. Additionally, it would not be uncommon to discover accounting errors as these were gentlemen who created inaccuracies the same as you and I.

Income

To Pay & arrears Due you to y'e. 24th Apr. 1758
     £: 6. 11. 0

[Total]  £: 6. 11. 0

Expenses

To 1 Pair Shoes & 1 Napsack
£: 0. 6. 6
To 1 Haversack & 1 Cocade
£: 0. 1. 8
To 1 Pair Garters & 1 Sett Buckles
£: 0. 1. 4
To 1 Kilt & Small Belt
£: 0. 1. 4
To Provision at Glasgow
£: 0. 4. 8
To Spruce Beer at Halifax
£: 0. 2. 8
To 2 Cheq'd. Shirts
£: 0. 7. 0
To Y'e. Proportion of a Cooks Frock
£: 0. 0. 8
To 10 months stops for y'e. Payment Serjt. @ 1½p Month
£: 0. 0. 10
To 7 D'o. D'o. for y'e. barber @ 2p D'o.
£: 0. 1. 2
To Cash given you at Fairf'd.
£: 0. 18. 8

£: 2. 0. 0

£: 4. 2. 1

£: 6. 11. 0

[Total]  £: 2. 6. 4

[Income minus Expenses equals Cash Paid] 

To Cash Paid him as Bala'ce. of y'e. Above
       £: 4. 4. 8



Halifax 17th May 1758 Rec'd. y'e. above ball'ce in full of my Pay & arrears of Pay Due from y'e. Date of my attestation to y'e. 24th Apr. Last as witneſs my hand
                                                                                             [signed]  John McGregor

Source:
Major James Clephane, "Payroll account of Serjeant John McGregor, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1758." Military Account Book at Halifax. NAS GD125-34-5, pp. 12-13.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Friday, April 20, 2018

Court Martial of Corporal Angus McDonald, 78th Regiment of Foot, 1761

Court martial of Corporal Angus McDonald, 78th Regiment
In his Sketches, Stewart of Garth maintained that the high moral code of the early Highlanders meant that misconduct was virtually unknown within their regiments. Although it is true that Highlanders feature far less frequently in the General Courts Martial records than miscreants from other battalions, it would be wrong to go to the other extreme and suggest that their ranks were filled with plaster saints. A worthy champion of this violent heritage was Corporal Angus McDonald of Fraser's Highlanders, who was brought before a General Court Martial at Quebec in September 1761.

The following is a complete transcript of the corporal's legal proceedings.

Official proceedings
Proceedings of a General Court Martial held at Quebec the 25th Day of September 1761, By Virtue of a Warrant from his Excellency Governor Murray dated the 24th said Month.

Major James Agnew President.

Members:
Captain Samuel Gardiner
Captain George Byrd
Captain Robert Rutherford
Captain John Carden
Captain Edmund Malcome
Captain John Brown
Captain Nicholas Cox
Captain James Dalrymple
Captain Thomas Smelt
Captain Robert Brigstock
Captain Henry Alt
Captain Edward Crymble

Hector Theophilus Cramaché Deputy Judge Advocate.

Opening statement
The Court being duly Sworn the Prisoner Angus MacDonald of the 78th Regiment was brought before the Court and tried for quitting his Post, and robbing several of the French Inhabitants under Pretence he had orders to take Quarters for some Troops.

Deposition of Lieutenant Henry Marr
A Letter from Lieutenant Marr of the 47th Regiment dated the 21st of September at St. Lawrence to Lieutenant Mills as Town Adjutant.

St. Lawrence 21st September 1761
Dear Sir,
When I left St Francois to proceed to this Place, I was ordered by Major Irving to leave a Corporal, and two Men, as a Guard, to the King's wood; I accordingly ordered the Prisoner Corporal Macdonald of the 78th Regiment to remain there, but he either tired with Solitude, or fond of Novelty and Frolick, determined to leave his Guard and cross the River to the Parishes of St. Joachim, St. Anns, and Chateau in the North Shore, where he behaved in a very extraordinary manner; as you will see by the enclosed Letter, which fully represents the Affair, when I first heard of his being absent I imagined he had deserted, and ordered Strick Search to be made for him every where till Sunday last, when I was favoured with the enclosed relating to him.

/Signed/
Henry Marr Lieutenant
47th Regiment

Deposition of Ensign Philip Pitman
A Letter from Ensign Pitman of the 19th September dated at Chateau River

Chateau River 19th Sepr. 1761
Dear Sir,
One Angus Monro or McDonald has been up and down the Parishes of St. Joachim, St. Anns, and Chateau for this week past, imposing on the Inhabitants of said Parishes in a most Vilinous, and extraordinary manner, by extorting from them Money, Horses, and anything he had occasion for shewing as he pretended an order for so doing in writing; and sometimes on refusal threatened to beat, or put them to Death, pretending to be an officer, he is a Soldier of the 78th Regiment above the middle size, and has Caroty Hair, is of Captain Nairns Company, and I understand belongs to your Party, I this Day rode from Chateau to St. Anns privetly to apprehend him, but unfortunately he was gone over to the Island an Hour before I got there, I hope you will take all possible Care to secure him, that he may be brought to Justice, I write this Letter which I send with the Captains of Malitia of whom he got four Dollars, as he did from the Captains of Malitia of the other two Parishes.

/Signed/
Ph: Pitman

Deposition of John Morris
John Morris Soldier of the 58th Regiment was sworn and deposes, that the Prisoner is a Soldier belonging to Lieutenant Marrs Party, on the Island of Orleans, and was ordered with two other Men to take some Wood, at St. Francois in that Island, and that Lieut. Marr, having received Information the Prisoner had drawn some Money from the Captains of Militia on the North Shore, the Deponent was sent by him for them, where he saw the Houses marked with scores for Quarters and Magazines as he was informed by the Canadians that he returned, and was sent to St. Francois by Lieutenant Marr with four Men, to take him up, which he did, and Carried him to Town.

Deposition of Captain Jacques Perrault
Jacques Perrault Captain of the Militia of St. Famille in the Island of Orleans being sworn deposes, that the Prisoner came to his Parish, saying he had Orders to see what Houses in his Parish were capable of receiving Men, that he asked him for his Orders, that he said he had none, and must make a Report to the General first, that afterwards he demanded four Dollars of the Deponent and upon his saying he had none, he ordered him to get a canoe with three Men and that he would go straight to Quebec, to complain, that fearing the Consequence he offered him two which he accepted, that he commanded a Canoe to carry him over to the North Shore.

Deposition of Captain Jacques Perrault
Jean Lesarre Captain of the Militia of St. Anns being sworn deposes, that he found on his Return, from Town, the Prisoner at his House, where he had landed from St. Famille, that the Prisoner told him he must shew him the best Houses to Lodge 48 Men, and they must cut and carry to the water Side every Week 48 Cords of Wood, that he, or his Serjeant must go with him to St. Joachim what he made him assemble the whole Parish, nay even ordered the Women to appear, and said he would not Quarter Men in the Houses where there were young Women, that he demanded five Dollars, that the Deponent not having a farthing was obliged to search the whole Parish to borrow three, for which he pretended to give a Receipt, now produced, being a Scrap of paper, with some scratches on it, the Deponent further says the Prisoner was there three Days backwards and forewards in this Parish, and that he appeared to him the whole Time very much in his Senses, in the same manner he does now, and further that he ordered a Canoe to carry him back to St. Famille.

The Deponent being asked upon what pretense the Prisoner demanded the Money, says, he informed him, it was the Generals order he should have five Dollars of each Captain for his Expenses, produced five, or six Papers, which he said were these orders, and threatened to send him to Quebec, if he did not comply.

Deposition of Captain Francis Raneour
Francis Raneour Captain of the Militia of St. Joachim being sworn deposes, he was sent for by the Prisoner to a Publick House, about ¾ of a League from his, that after some Time he told him he must Quarter 48 Men, and some Officers; to the amount of Sixty, and demands four Dollars, which the Deponent protested he could not comply with, after pressing, the Man of the Publick House lent the Man four Dollars, which he gave the Prisoner, who returned him a Shilling, that he did not give a Receipt, but took his name down upon a Piece of Paper.

The Deponent being asked upon what Pretence he demanded the four Dollars, says by the Generals Order, and it would be repaid by his Secretary.

Deposition of Captain Eustache Bacon
Eustache Bacon Captain of the Militia of Chateau Richer being sworn deposes that he was sent for by the Prisoner to a House where he was told to assemble the Company next morning at Six Oclock, that representing this was a little too early he put it till eight o'clock, that he afterwards demanded four dollars of him, by order of the Governor, and after making some Difficulty, he borrowed two French Crowns, and two Dollars, which he gave the Prisoner who returned one Shilling.

The Deponent being asked if the Prisoner appeared at all wrong in the head, answers on the Contrary appeared very Sensible.

Deposition of Corporal Angus McDonald
The Prisoner in his Defence says he was out of his Senses at that Time, that he is subject to the falling Sickness, for which he was marked down by Doctor Russel to be discharged, and that he is generally out of his Senses three Days after he comes out of a Fitt, one of which he had before he left the Island of Orleans.

Deposition of Ensign Gregarson
Ensign Gregarson of the 2d Battalion of the Royal American Regiment being sworn Deposes, that he was in the 78th Regt. and heard that the Prisoner had Fitts, but never heard that he was Mad; being asked if he ever saw him in Fitts, or Mad, says not.

Deposition of Ensign Robert McPherson
Ensign Robert McPherson of said Battalion being sworn, Deposes, that he remembers the Prisoner, in the Regiment in which he was Volunteer, and never heard of his having Fitts, till this day.

Deposition of Serjeant James Robinson
Serjeant James Robinson of the 78th Regiment being Sworn, Deposes, that he heard a Serjeant who kept the Hospital say the Prisoner had the falling Sickness. 

Verdict
The Court having heard and examined the Allegations against the Prisoner, together with what he has to offer in his Defence Is of opinion that Angus McDonald Soldier of the 78th Regiment is Guilty of the Charge brought against him, and doth adjudge him to receive two thousand Lashes, To repay the Captains of Militia the Money said McDonald extorted from them, if there is so much owing to him by his Captain, or be put under Stoppages, not exceeding one half of his Pay till the whole is repaid.

Sentencing confirmation
I do hereby confirm the foregoing Sentence, that Angus McDonald Soldier in the 78th Regiment shall receive two thousand Lashes and repay the Money extorted from the Captains of Militia.

Given under my Hand at
Quebec this 26th Sept. 1761
/Signed/
Ja: Murray

Note: Corporal Angus McDonald does not appear on any known muster rolls after this date and is presumed to have been discharged prior to the official disbandment of the regiment in December 1763.

Sources: 
General Courts Martial records, Quebec, 25 September 1761, TNA WO 71/71.

Stewart, Sketches of the Highlanders, I, 235-6.

Brumwell, Stephen, Redcoats: The British Soldier and War in the Americas, 1755-1763, pp. 280-1. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.