Thursday, November 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Ten

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 29th, 1759. We are informed at Point Levy camp that three Rangers have brought in three scalps from St Andre, and took a courier with letters, orders, and directions to the captains of militia and friers, desiring them to keep constant guards, and inform the inhabitants that we shall be soon obliged to leave the country.

30th. By order of his Excellency General Wolfe the three Brigadiers assembled in order to consul the measures most practicable for the good of the service. The result of the conference not known by us.

31st. By a deserter we are informed that the enemy are sickly, and discontented with their Indians. Meeting four Indians of the Mohawk tribe with an officer from General Amherst, treacherously deceived them by pretending friendship, and at the same time conducted to a party of French, who made them prisoners, and they are confined on board the frigates formerly mentioned. At nigh the Sea Horse man-of-war, three catts, and one schooner passed the town ; after receiving alarm, cannonading from the battery. None hurt.

September 1st. All the houses below Montmorency Falls, or to the eastward, sett on fire by our army. This forenoon some cannon carried from the Montmorency side to the camp at Point Levy. Our troops there expect an attack from the enemy this night, which is very desirable to all our gentlemen.

2nd. The remaining cannon carried from Montmorency this day.

The Assistant Qr-Master marked the encampments for the Brigade and Lt. Infantry from Montmorency to the left of our cantonments. We hear that the additional company of our regt. are in the river.

3rd. This morning the troops at Montmorency decamped, embarked in boats without the least molestation or advantages taken at that important time of their drawing off. Passing the Point of Orleans, the enemy fired from their batterys (to the westwd of the Falls) both shott and shells none of which made any execution. The enemy's generosity in the above particular and critical juncture is a plain proof that Monsieur Montcalm will make no other use of the Canadians than defend their capital. He must be concerned to see Montmorency abandoned, it not being safe for him to depend on part of his troops to give the least annoyance ; likewise permitting us to detach what numbers we please, to lay waste their country, and still remain in his entrenched camp at Beauport.

This day Captn Cameron of Colonel Fraser's regt. died, much and justly regretted, as he was a most agreeable, sensible, and benevolent man.

We hear the Sunderland man-of-war was attacked the night of the 29th ulto. by 75 bataves; the enemy were repulsed with the loss of 4 bataves taken. In orders, the Light Infantry commanded by Capt. Carden to return to the regt. and all the corps of Lt. Infantry to receive their orders from Colonel How.

4th. An officer and three Rangers arrived in camp with dispatches from General Amherst to General Wolfe, whom they left at Crown Point 8th of Aug. making all preparations necessary for pursuing his design and first the possession of Lake Champlain. We hear nothing of the contents in these dispatches further than a random shott carrying off Colonel Townshend, one ensign and three men of the Light Infantry.

This evening Capt. Cameron aforesaid buried, and Capt. Fraser of Culduthell with his additional company arrived in the harbour.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Thursday, November 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Nine

Journal During the Siege of Quebec
August 22nd, 1759. Some of our men went to pull pease this forenoon, who discovered a party of the enemy and returned. At night the Admiral returned from his reconoitring cruise.

23rd. A few men on horseback made their appearance this morning, but on seeing a small party of our men make towards them they thought proper to retire. At 12 o'clock received orders to get under arms, the whole to march in three separate divisions, viz. the 3rd battalion Roy. Americans to the right of our camp the length of St. Croiz, the 15th regt. with Capt. Fraser's co. of Lt. Infantry the length of St. Nicholas to the left of our camp, under the command of the General, the former division by Major Dalling ; the 3rd division in boats, consisting of co. Light Infantry, commanded by Capt. Charters of the Royal Americans. The consequence of which scout ended in burning a battery, a sloop, and 2 saw mills. The real intention was that if any of the enemy made their appearance, and that we could not bring them to battle, Capt. Simon Fraser with his co. and 50 volunteers of the 15th regt. were to lay in ambush till next morning, when they were to retire. At night Major Dalling returned with his division, exchanged a few shott with the enemy, and made one prisoner.

24th. The General gave orders for the whole to prepare to embark to-morrow.

25th. This morning fell down the Squirel, a sloop-of-war, with the admiral, general, and the wounded officers.

In the evening the 15th regt. and 3rd battalion Roy. Americans embarked. Capt. Fraser's co. covered the retreat ; the enemy fired on us a few shot, only one sustained.

26th. An order from General Wolfe desiring Colonel Young with the 3rd Roy. Americans and 200 marines to land, and keep possession of one former ground at St. Anthony. The 15th regt. and Lt. Infantry to embark on board their flatt-bottomed boats, and return to Point Levy.

27th. Passed the batterys ; not one shott fired at us. Arrived at Point Levy at 4 o'clock, where we learnt that 1000 of the enemy in boats went up the river, who, they imagined, would fall in with us coming down the river. General Wolfe indisposed ; greatly regreted by the whole army.

We were ordered to take post in our former cantonments 3 miles from Point Levy camp, and to the westward of our battery.

28th. Remained in our cantonments all day ; nothing extraordinary happened. At night, by favour of the flood and an easterly wind gale the Lostoff frigate, Hunter sloop-of-war, two catts, and one schooner passed the town ; 200 shott fired at them ; one sailor killed, and two wounded.

The face of the camp at Point Levy entirely changed to the great encouragement given to venders of all kinds.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, October 21, 2018

Transport Vessels for the Highland Battalions

Whitehall March 10, 1757.
Ldrs of the Admty. 

My Lords
I am commanded to signify to your Lordships His Majesty's Pleasure that you do forthwith cause a sufficient number of the Transport Vessels, (ordered by my Letters of the 22d past) to be fitted up, victualled, & provided with Bedding, for receiving on board, and conveying to North America, at the rate of two tons for each person, Two Highland Battalions of Foot, commanded by Lt. Col. Montgomery & Lt. Col. Fraser, Each Battalion consisting of 44 commission & Staff officers, 80 Non Commissioned officers, 20 Drummers, & 1000 private Men, together with the usual allowance of 6 Women, & 3 Servant to Each Company. And it's the Kings' further Pleasure that the said Transport Vessels so fitted up, be directed to repair to Cork in Ireland, under such convoy as your Lordships shall judge sufficient, where the Two Battalions above mentioned are to be embarked; and from whence such of the Transport Vessels, as shall have on board the Battalion, commanded by Lieut. Colonel Montgomery are to proceed to Charles Town in South Carolina, and the remainder, with the Battalion, commanded by Lieut. Colonel Fraser are to proceed to Halifax, in Nova Scotia, at which place they are to be respectively disembarked; And your Lordships will accordingly give the necessary Orders for this purpose to the Commanding Officer of the s Officer, commanding the said Convoy, & Transport Vessels.


Draft to the Ldrs of the Admty
March 10th, 1757.
2 Tents, Baggage &c
Transports for Highlanders &c.

After arriving at Glasgow, newspaper accounts depict the main body of Fraser's Highlanders, on or about 19 April 1757, proceeding west to Port Patrick en route to Donaghadee, Ireland, where they would continue their march some 400 miles south to Cork, Ireland and depart for North America in eight transport ships under cover of the Enterprize, a 40-gun man of war.

Note: Originally commissioned Norwich in May 1718, she was later renamed Enterprize on 23 May 1744.

Colonel Simon Fraser
From aboard the Ann transport ship in Cove Harbour, Colonel Fraser wrote on June 28th, 1757:

My Dr Sir,
     Tho I have been long hurryd I am not less so than ever & have but just time to tell you that we marched safe and sound thro Ireland without the loss of a man since we landed they hardly gave us time to cool our bloods when they embarked us & here we are all alive and merry.

    I don’t know if I said anything in answer to yours about the meal but it must be sent for & distributed first to the widows, then to the wives & so on to the third and fourth generation of them that loved me well enough to follow me. As to the Deserters I woud have them be sent by the first troops to Glasgow & Mr Geo Buchanan Junr there will send them by some Capt transporting convicts to Halifax where we are destined to & this I would have done with the rest if any are taken. God bless you my Dr Sir, the Wyfie poor beoch, the bairns, Hopefull &c &c I shall find time to write you at sea.  

Yrs S. Fraser

Sergeant James Thompson
The regiment would ultimately depart Cork for Halifax, Nova Scotia on June 30, 1757. The following is an excerpt from Sergeant James Thompson's diary on the sailing to North America:

     Our Regiment rendezvou'd at Cork, there to embark for Service, somewhere or other in North America. We sail'd with seal'd orders, which were only to be open'd when we reach'd a certain latitude. The hir'd vessel I was embark'd in was call'd the Martello, a beautiful new ship, and it was her first voyage. The Captain did not know her trim, and the first few days after our sailing she would run away from the Commodore in no time, in spite of our short'ning sail, and for this high offense, which he couldn't help, the Captain had frequently a shot fired at him, to make him keep under the wing of the Commodore, the shot however, did no further injury than subject the Captain to a fine of six and eight pence for every shot. One day we had a fine stiff breeze and our ship actually outsailed the whole of the Fleet altho' only under bare poles. When the Commodore saw this he was satisfied it wasn't the Captain's fault, and he made him pay no more six-and-eight pence per shot. The ship was so tight that she didn't require pumping the whole of the voyage, which was a lucky circumstance indeed.

     At last, we discover'd the Commodore's Signal for the whole of the Fleet to heave-to, and when we had done this as cleverly as we could, the Signal was made for all Commanding Officers of Corps to go on board the Commodore's ship. This was to make known our Destination, and to receive their Orders accordingly. We soon after found out that our place of destination was Halifax. As good luck would have it, the Fleet was safe, and soon after we cast our Anchor, our Captain was anxious to try the tightness of his ship and gave his orders to have her pump'd. The men had difficulty in getting the pumps to draw, and when, at last, water came, it was as black as my Bonnet, and it produced such a stench, that it would soon have poison'd all the men on board. It turn'd out that instead of pumping out, 'afaith they were obliged to pump in, to prevent the Troops getting sick.

     When we landed at Halifax, we found our Commander-in-Chief General Wolfe there, drilling away the men, and making fight sham-battles at a place round the Town called Deptford, where the ground is level. We were not long at Halifax when we received Orders to set sail for the River Saint Lawrence, and in a few days we came to anchor opposite the harbour of Louisbourg which we knew it was our business to try and take.

Transport Ships at Halifax
Further research indicates the hired vessel Martello that Serjeant Thompson spoke of may have actually been named Myrtilla, as recorded on October 17, 1757 with the Second Highland Battalion in Halifax Harbour. Thompson describes her as "...a beautiful new ship," and early records confirm she was originally built in 1754. Because Thompson's diary was recorded some years later, it would not be uncommon, due to advanced age, to have erred in his recollections.

Return of Col. Fraser's transport ships in Halifax Harbour, October 1757
Return of Col. Fraser's transport ships in Halifax Harbour, October 1757
Note: The Matilla transport ship, as depicted in the above Return in Halifax Harbour, was most likely named Matilda, commanded by Captain Wing, and recorded as returning to England with five other transport ships, viz., Kent; Neptune; Brotherly Love; Myrtilla; Duchess of Hamilton. [Lloyd's List - "Ships arriving at Downs from North America," 12 Apr. 1757.] 

“Transport Vessels for the Highland Battalions.” Letter received by Lords of Admiralty, 10 March 1757. America and West Indies, Original Correspondence, etc. Despatches to governors and others, 1756-1757, C.O. 5 ed., vol. 212, pp. 423-426. Public Archives Canada. Print.

Col. Simon Fraser, "Colonel Fraser in Cove Harbour, 28 June. 1757." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

Earl John Chapman, “Troop Transport Martello.” Received by, Rootsweb, 10 Apr. 2010, Accessed 2 July 2017.

"Halifax Harbour Transporte List." Elizabeth Rose Family papers. NAS, GD125-22-17, p. 18.

Lloyd's Register Group, “Lloyd's Register of Ships.” Lloyd's Register Group Limited, 2017,

Andrew Welsh, "Enterprize departs Cork, Ireland 30 June 1757." The Magazine of magazines, compiled from original pieces, with extracts from the most celebrated books and periodical compositions published in Europe, vol. 13, p. 575. London. Printed for W. Owen, 1757.

British Fourth Rate Ships of the Line, "Norwich Renamed Enterprize, 1744." Three Decks, Warships in the Age of Sail, 2017. Accessed 2 July 2017. Web.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.  All rights reserved.

Monday, October 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Eight

Journal written during the siege of Quebec
August 15th, 1759. Remained in camp all day ; the weather rainy. Nothing extraordinary.

16th. This forenoon a small party of the enemy shewed themselves to the left of our encampment, but were repulsed by a few of our advanced guard.

17th. This forenoon the General gave in orders that the two battalions and two companys of Light Infantry should prepare to embark on board their respective vessels, as the former distribution. At 10 o'clock we struck our tents and embarked, where we remained till the night following. The other company of Light Infantry with the 200 marines to remain on shore till further orders, under the command of Captn. Fraser.

18th. At 12 o'clock this day embarked Capt. Simon Fraser with Delaunne's co. of Lt. Infantry. At the same time the General called for commanding officers of companys in order to explain his order of battle at landing next, or at the attack intended on the village Chambeau, where according to intelligence formerly given (by prisoners taken), there are some magazines, and consequently men to endeavour their defence. After which explanation the General sent orders to the commanding officers of the marines to keep the tents of the two regts. standing, that as the enemy might discover the embarkation of Delaune's company in the daytime, seeing the camp as formerly excepting the tents of the Light Infantry, as also keeping the face of the encampment as formerly with a number of large fires, that from these circumstances the enemy will probably conjecture that the tents struck is only the Light Infantry, being detached, &c. Likewise oblige them to keep their quarters, not knowing the infantry's intention or destination.

At 11 o'clock we embarked in boats, and agreeable to orders rendevouzed at the War transport. At 12 o'clock we sett of accompany'd by two floating batterys, for the intended attack of Chambeau, which lies on the north shore, 7 leagues up the river Point au Tremble and 21 leagues ffrom Quebec.

19th. By daybreak we drew nigh the rendevouze formerly mentioned, at the same time discovered a large topsail schooner on her way from shore, and bearing down upon us, which would not be so convenient ; but in a little time they altered their course, by which we understood they meant to scheere off. About an hour after we landed, to our surprise without opposition, being two miles below the church of St. Joseph. We formed a column, Delaune's and Carden's company forming the van, and Fraser's company, with a detachmt of Royal Americans, the rear guard. As churches were generally the posts they occupied we marched in the aforesaid order without any molestation, excepting a few shott on our rear which did not disturb us much, when our van came in sight of the church of St. Joseph, a Capt. of De La Sare's regiment with about 60 regulars made a show of making a stand, which obliged the Brigadier to make a disposition of attacking, not knowing but they might be a part of a larger body. On their seeing the head of our column draw nigh, the Capt. and his men withdrew to the wood without firing a shott. Near this church found a store-house in which store was all the effects including equipage and apparel, of all the officers in Quebec, civil and military, besides arms and ammunition, the whole value as 90.000 pounds sterling money, which we consumed by fire. We remained at Chambeau till 1/2 past three o'clock in the evening ; being low water we embarked on board our boats, carrying off some sheep, leaving 100 cattle shott on the beach. Major Dalling's Light Infantry covered the retreat, which was done in pretty good order, and without the loss of one man. After we were embarked, and about 500 yards from shore, the General ordered one Capt. Mophak, a sea officer who had the command and direction of the flatt-bottomed boats when without the troops or at embarking or debarking, with two floating batterys and two flatt-bottomed boats with troops in them, to attack the schooner which lay dry on the sout shore. On the boars approaching the enemy fired two shott, abandon'd her, and sett her on fire. As we were coming down the river we was fired on by a party of Canadians from behind logs on the south shore ; none hurt. Arrived at 10 o'clock this night at our camp ; part of the troops did not disembark.

20th. The remaining part of the troops disembarked, and the marines in camp embarked. Rainy weather. At night disturbed by our sentry's firing at some straggling enemy coming to sculk by our camp ; the Light Infantry under arms till day, during which time it rained very hard.

21st. This morning the Brigadr (Genl Murray) sent to the camp desiring Capt. Fraser to come on board, signifying to him that he considered a diversion up the river to be of great consequence, and that every measure practicable should be taken to destroy the French shipping (which lay about 24 leagues above the town or city of Quebec) in order to clear the communication twixt us and Mr. Amherst, proposing to send Capt. Fraser with despatches to his Excellency General Wolfe, which afterwards was dropt. Forenoon of the day Admiral Holmes went on board a schooner in order to go reconoitre the French shipping and sound the channel.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Sunday, October 14, 2018

Companies of the 78th Regiment, 1763

As early as March 1759 Colonel Fraser's 78th Highlanders consisted of 14 companies and over 1500 men and women, each commanded by a commissioned officer. By 1763 the total number was reduced quite significantly to a regiment just under 900 in strength. Although thoroughly documented muster rolls [complete with soldier's names] are not available for the early years, it's towards the latter end of the war when would finally discover the names of the men and women who graced their country in what will be forever recognized as one of the single most important military campaigns in North America's early history.

Muster rolls have remained an important document in military accountability for literally hundreds of years. In addition to identifying the names in a company, battalion, or regiment, they sometimes contained a 'record of events,' recording activities engaged in by the particular unit. The primary function of the many rolls maintained was to provide basic information about the identities, numbers, condition, equipage, and pay status of the men and women that comprised the British Army in order to facilitate administrative control. The rolls would have been created at the formation of a regiment, and continued monthly [bimonthly, and even semi-annually] as a way to track the status of each member, and finally ending when the unit was disbanded. It has been reported commanding officers' sometimes 'padded their rolls' [accounting for more men than they actually had] in order to receive extra rations at the end of the month. 

The earliest known surviving subsistence rolls [muster rolls created to document the official discharge dates, including funding victualed to each soldier] for the 78th Highlanders are dated 19 July 1763, with a subsequent set created one month later in August. Though errors have been discovered in the final reporting [we would expect to see incomplete or ambiguous reporting when dealing with about 900 names], these rolls serve as the Regiment's official discharge roster at the time of its disbandment.

Colonel Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 1763

“Revolutionary War Rolls, 1894-1913.” National Archives Catalog, War Department, National Archives, Washington, D.C. , 1947,

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Monday, October 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Seven

August 8th, 1759. This morning by 10 o'clock were ordered to embark on board our boats (it being tide of flood) to attempt a landing on the north shore opposite to the church of Point au Tremble. The disposition of our landing was that Major Dalling's Light Infantry (being but 3 cos.) should lead and land first. The Marines to bring up the rear of the 15th regt. When the signal was made (which was a wave of the brigadier's hat) a reef of rocks ahead rendered it impossible to row directly in : Capt. Simon Fraser ordered two boats to row a little to the left, which was followed by the boat in which he was, containing the remaining part of the company belonging to him, who got clear of the rocks, pushed directly in, and landed. We drew up on the beach opposite to a body of the enemy posted in a copse in our front. Capt. Fraser discovering another body on our left, besides several smaller parties moving between the copse and the houses of the village Point au Tremble, he thought it imprudent to begin an attack before some more men were landed. He therefore cry'd to Brigadier Murray (whose boat was then near our shore) to order more men to land. On which the Brigadr. landed along with his Brigade Major (Maitland), Colonel Carleton, and Capt. Stobo, seemed dissatisfied with the slowness of the other two companys at landing, unfairly attributing the cause to shyness, when in reality it was owing to two boats running on the reef of rocks formerly mentioned. So soon as the boats floated, Capt. De Laune pushed in landing where Capt. Fraser's co. were drawn up, but as the different of time twixt Capt. Fraser's landing and Capt. Delaunne's were about 16 minutes, most of the former company were three feet deep in water, being tide of flood, which damaged part of their ammunition. Another great obstacle which disconcerted the Brigadr. that the boats in which the remaining part of the troops were embarked must row against tide in consideration of which the General thought proper to order a retreat to be beat ; the two companys drew off, reembarked in their respective boats without much confusion, but sustained part of the enemy's fire.

After drawing off from shore, the General ordered the killed and wounded on board a sloop who was exchanging some shot with one of the enemy's fleating batteries. As also the dry ammunition to be proportionally divided, and the whole to prepare for a second attack, in the same order as the former. We accordingly rowed in shore, but we found all the copse better lined than formerly, and from our boats could discover a considerable body on a road about 500 yards from thence, and those in the copse as formerly. The whole appeared formidable, as an officer on horseback went from one body to another, viz. that posted on the beach, the other on the road, and the one posted by the church aforesaid to deliver orders (as may be supposed). However, Major Dalling pursued the directions given him : when we came within gun-shot of the enemy, they gave us so heavy a fire of musketry that our landing was impracticable, besides, nor could our sailor's stand by their oars for some minutes. Upon seeing the boats wherein the regts. were embarked, pulled about, the soldiers seized the oars, backed water, and drew off from the fire. We learnt that upon the General's seeing these large bodys of the enemy in the village, he ordered the retreat to be beat, which we did not hear, being under the fire of the enemy. On this repulse, the whole of the troops re-embarked on board their respective ships. The following is an account of the killed and wounded of the three companys of Light Infantry : 10 officers wounded ; 36 privates wounded, and 26 killed.

N.B. Also 10 sailors killed and wounded belonging to the Sunderland man-of-war.

August 9th, 1759. Employed in the disposing and carrying for the wounded most of the day. At nine o'clock this night the Brigadr. ordered Lt. Crofton of the Rangers to land on the south shore in order to take a prisoner. He accordingly with 20 men landed, surprised a barn in which there were 9 Canadians, killed 4, and took 5 prisoners.

10th. This morning embarked on board our flat-bottomed boats, in order to land on the south shore, in the same order as the 8th inst. About half an hour after 7 o'clock rowed in and landed, after sustaining a small fire from the enemy, of whom we killed five, and took a captain of militia prisoner. Our loss consisting of one private killed, 6 wounded, and Lt. Sam Rutherford of Amherst's regt. wounded.

After we beat off the enemy, we took possession of an eminence where we encamped, strongly situated opposite to our ships, near village St. Nicholas, 21 miles from Point Levy camp.

11th. Remained in camp ; nothing done.

12th. Very rainy weather. This morning a schooner from below joined our fleet ; the m'r of reports that two catts with a regt. on board endeavoured to pass the town, but were obliged to put back by the brisk cannonading of the batterys.

13th. A detachment of 400 men under the command of Major Dalling marched to the eastward to reconoitre the country ; they were fired on by a small party of Canadians, who made the following execution, viz. Capt. Carden wounded, also 4 wounded of the Rangers. On which the General ordered all the houses east of our post (in the parish of St. Croix) to be sett on fire, and at the same time fixed a manifesto on the church door, declaring that if they should anoye any of our troops passing or repassing the communication, for the future, that no quarter will be given the inhabitants when taken, without exception or respect to person. The detachment took a great number of cattle ; no prisoners.

14th. This morning 7 marines straggled about 800 yards from the camp, who was taken by the enemy, part of whom they massacred and left on the beach in order to be discovered, in return of which cruelty the General marched with two battalions, viz. Amherst's and the 2nd Battln. Royal A., 3 miles east of our camp in the village of St. Nicholas, setting fire to all the houses belonging thereto. Neither prisoners or cattle brought in to camp.

Unknown. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Monday, September 17, 2018

Draught Soldiers to the 60th Regiment

In the summer of 1763, having received King George's Instructions regarding the reduction of the British armies in North America, the acting generals put in motion their plan for augmenting the three regiments that would remain guarding Quebec. It was decided the 15th, 27th, and 2d Battalion, 60th Royal American Regiment would be assigned this task.

An analysis of the official Subsistence Rolls of the 78th Regiment reveals approximately 358 soldiers remained in North America for this duty. Some were volunteers, others were called upon because of the time remaining on their current enlistment contracts. And while the exact numbers of soldiers transferring to the 2d Battalion, 60th R.A. Regiment cannot be positively identified [due to incomplete and ambiguous reporting on multiple levels,] about 140 draught soldiers from Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Highlanders would join them that summer.

Draughts of the 78th Regiment
The following names of soldiers in the 2d Battalion, 60th R.A. Regiment, listed with their company commanders, are synonymous with the names of soldiers in the 78th Regiment at the time of its disbandment. This muster is for 182 days ending 24 April 1765, the earliest available rolls after 1 September 1763, the date by which most of Colonel Fraser's men had transferred.

Colonel James Murray
1. Drummer Alexander Kennedy
2. Private Alexander Cameron
3. Private Alexander Cameron
4. Private Alexander Cameron
5. Private John Cameron
6. Private William Cameron
7. Private Angus Cameron
8. Private William Fraser
9. Private William Forbes
10. Private John Gunn
11. Private Alexander Johnson
12. Private James Knight
13. Private John McDonald
14. Private Murdoch McKinzie
15. Private Donald McKinzie
16. Private Donald McDonald
17. Private Alexander McDonald
18. Private Even McPhee
19. Private James McKinzie
20. Private Walter Simpson

Colonel Frederick Haldiman
21. Private Hector Cameron
22. Private James McDonald
23. Private John Chisolm
24. Private Alexander Fraser
25. Private David Fulerton
26. Private John McKenzie
27. Private Alexander McPherson
28. Private Donald McPherson
29. Private John McPherson
30. Private John McLeod
31. Private Donald McLeod
32. Private James McIntosh
33. Private John McIntosh
34. Private Arthur Rose
35. Private James Smith
36. Private James Wright
37. Private James McDonald
38. Private Peter MacDonald

Captain Thomas Barnsly
39. Corporal Gregor Mcgregor
40. Drummer John Provan
41. Private Donald Black
42. Private Donald Campbele
43. Private Roderick Ferguson
44. Private Duncan Ferguson
45. Private Hugh Grant
46. Private John Gray
47. Private Duncan Gillis
48. Private Coal Henderson
49. Private James Lamb
50. Private John Mcaybin
51. Private Allan McDougall
52. Private John McArthur
53. Private Niel McArthur
54. Private Donald McArthur
55. Private Donald McMillan
56. Private John Munro
57. Private Malcolm McLeod
58. Private Donald Thompson
59. Private William McLeod

Captain Robert Bayard
60. Private Finly Campbell
61. Private William Cameron
62. Private John Fletcher
63. Private John McGilora
64. Private James McPherson
65. Private John Stuart
66. Private John Strachan
67. Private George Thomson
68. Private John McLeod

Captain John Bradstreet
69. Drummer Duncan McKenzie
70. Private John Brown
71. Private Duncan Campbell
72. Private Alexander Fraser
73. Private Alexander Fraser
74. Private Donald Fraser
75. Private Duncan Fraser
76. Private James Fraser
77. Private Hugh Fraser
78. Private James McNouloch
79. Private Collin McCulloch
80. Private Duncan McCra
81. Private Alexander McKenzie
82. Private Duncan McKenzie
83. Private Donald McKenzie
84. Private Alexander McPherson
85. Private John McGregor
86. Private Petter McGregor
87. Private Malcolm McGregor

Captain Robert Brigstock
88. Serjeant Allan MacDonald
89. Serjeant William Watson
90. Private Donald Cameron
91. Private William Fraser
92. Private Hugh Fraser
93. Private John Fraser
94. Private John Fraser
95. Private John Fraser
96. Private William Grubb
97. Private John MacDonald
98. Private Hugh Munro
99. Private Hugh Ross
100. Private William Stewart
101. Private Lachline Sinclair
102. Private Peter Macdonald

Captain John Brown
103. Drummer Thomas Fraser
104. Private Alexander Baine
105. Private John Chisolm
106. Private Donald Cameron
107. Private Duncan Cameron
108. Private John Cameron
109. Private Donald Cameron
110. Private Donald Campbell
111. Private Alexander Ferguson
112. Private Hugh Fraser
113. Private James Fraser
114. Private Lewis Grant
115. Private John Livingston
116. Private John Mackay
117. Private Alexander MacDonald
118. Private William Mills
119. Private Donald Ross
120. Private Ranald Johnston
121. Private Angus MacIntosh

Captain Samuel Holland
122. Drummer John McDonell
123. Private Archibald Bochanan
124. Private John Cameron
125. Private Donald Campbell
126. Private John Clark
127. Private Angus Fletcher
128. Private John Fraser
129. Private John Forbes
130. Private John Kennedy
131. Private John McBean
132. Private Duncan McDougal
133. Private Donald McDonald
134. Private John McDonell
135. Private John McIntosh
136. Private Duncan McNicall
137. Private John Mcpherson
138. Private William Ross
139. Private John Smith
140. Private John Mcpherson

1. Alexander Kennedy appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
39. Gregor Mcgregor appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
40. John Provan appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
48. Colin Henderson.
50. John McBain.
58. Donald Thompson died 27 December 1764.
54. William McLeod deserted 9 June 1765 at Fort Oswegatchie.
59. John McGillivrae.
69. Duncan McKenzie appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763. Deserted 1 October 1764 near Crown Point.
78. James McNulloch.
80. Duncan McCraw.
88. Allan McDonnel appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
89. William Watson appears on the list of 78th soldiers discharged in North America, 1763.
116. John McKay.
117. Alexander McDonald.
120. Ranald Johnson discharged 24 April 1765 at Fort William Augustus.
121. Angus MacIntosh died 15 July 1765 at Fort William Augustus.
123. Archibald Buchanan.
140. John Mcpherson transferred 24 April 1765 at Fort William Augustus to unk.
141. Hugh McDonald deserted 2 June 1765 at Fort William Augustus.

Private Duncan Cumming discharged from Captain Brigstock's Company 29 March 1765; however, his name does not appear on this muster roll.
- McDonald/McDonell surnames were used interchangeably.

War Office Records. 2nd Battalion, 60th Foot, 1764-1783. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists. TNA, W.O. 12/6935.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018. 

Sunday, September 16, 2018

Surname Variations in the 78th Regiment

The company clerks for the 78th Regiment, for the most part, did a wonderful job in recording the many different names for over 1500 soldiers during their stay in North America. And we would expect to see some variations throughout the hundreds of documents they were charged with upkeeping. From pay accounts to invalid lists and even muster rolls, while many of the surnames are synonymous with present-day spelling, we've uncovered the following variations throughout the Regiment, probably differing with each clerk depending on who the particular scribe may have been. We hope this list assists in your research, and be sure to let us know in the comments section below if we've missed any names. We'll be sure to get those added for you.

Surname Variations in the 78th Regiment

Beaton, Beatton

Bochanan, Buchanan

Brown, Browne

Campbel, Campbele, Campbell, Campble

Cameron, Camron

Canvin, Kinnavin

Carmichael, Carmichail

Carr, Kerr

Chisholm, Chisolm

Clark, Clarke, Clerk

Cormack, Cormak, Cormake

Cumming, Cummings, Cummins

Davison, Davidson

Forbes, Forbis

Forsyth, Forsythe,

Fraser, Frasier, Frazer

Fulerton, Fullerton

Gun, Gunn

Hutcheson, Hutchinson

Johnson, Johnston

Irving, Irwin

Kenedy, Kennedy

Law, Lowe

Levoche, Levock

McAlester, McAlister, McAllester

McAllum, McCallum

McAuley, McCauley

McBain, McBaine, McBean, Mcaybin

McCall, McColl

McCarly, McErbie

McCole, McColl

Mcra, McCraw, McGrah

McDougal, McDougall

McFarlane, McFarlin

McGilbray, McGilora, McGilvray, McGilleray, McGillivray, McGillvray, McGilavrie

McGregar, McGregor, McGrigor

McIntire, McIntyre

Mckay, Mckey

McKenon, McKinnon, McKinven, McKinvin

McLachlan, Mclachlin, McLaughlin

McMillen, McMullen

McNab, McNabb

McNaughton, McNorton

McNicall, McNicoll

McNouloch, McNulloch

McPhee, McPhie

McTormet, McTormitt

MacDonald, Mackdonald, McDonald*

Mack crae, McCrae

Mack Lean, MackLean, MacLean, McLea, McLean, McLay

MackLeod, Mcleod

Mack queen, Mcqueen

MackDonnel, McDonel, McDonell*

Mackenzie, McEnzie, McKenzie, McKinn, , McKinzey, McKinzie

Mackay, McKay

MacLeod, McLeod, McLoud

Mackniel, McNeal, McNiel

Martin, Martine

Milles, Mills

Monro, Munro, Munroe

More, Moore

Nichols, Nicoll

Robertson, Robinson*

Simson, Simpson

Steward, Stewart, Stuart

Strachen, Strauchen

Thomson, Thompson

Tolmie, Tolmay, Tolmey

Vass, Vauss, Wass

Weir, Wier

Note: McDonald/McDonell, Robertson/Robinson were used interchangeably.

War Office Records. Muster Books and Paylists: General, 15th Regiment, 1760-1767. LAC, W.O. 12, vol. 3228, Microfilm C-9202.

War Office Records. 2nd Battalion, 60th Foot, 1764-1783. Commissary General of Musters Office and successors: General Muster Books and Pay Lists. TNA, W.O. 12/6935.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." TNA, T.1, vol. 422.

Marie Fraser, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." Clan Fraser Society, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, 2001.

McIntosh, Walter H. 78th or Colonel Simon Fraser's Regiment [Topsfield, Massachusetts, n.d.]

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Six

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
August 1st. 1759. The weather continues to be very hot ; little done ; posted in a picquetted orchard.

2nd. Weather as yesterday. By this day's orders it appears that the General is not very well satisfied with the manner the Grenadiers attacked, as they went on with too great precipitation, also before the troops from the eastward of Montmorency could form to support them. Advanced in so great a hurry that is was impossible to preserve silence or method, not pay proper regard to the directions given them by their commanding officers, which is the very essence of military discipline. We took possession of a redoubt and a 5 gun battery at the foot of the precipice, but was obliged to abandon it without nailing the cannon.

Some imputes this, as follows, to be the reason of the Grenadiers' mistake, viz. that the sailors who landed them huzzaed that the Grenadiers from Orleans and Montmorency had joined. And that a certain captain ordered his drummers to beat the march without the desire of the Commanding Officer, which occasioned the miscarriage of the day. A flag of truce from town with a very antick letter from the French governor relating the prisoners taken at Montmorency.

By intelligence from Admiral Holms, a large body of the enemy are above the town, and is supposed means to cross. This night posted as the former.

3rd. The weather continues hot ; little done ; remained at our post this night in order to march in the morning.

4th. Marched at two o'clock this morning from our cantonments to Village de Couleur where we arrived by break of day ; surrounded several houses, found no person. About 8 o'clock saw a few Canadians and Indians, but could not come up with them. Drove horses, cows, and sheep to camp. On our arrival in camp, was informed of a flag of truce from town with letters for the French prisoners, which is said were all returned unopened. Received orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march against to-morrow's evening with the 15th regt. and 200 Marines under the command of Brigadier-Gen. Murray.

5th. All this day under orders of marching. At twelve o'clock this night marched with the 15th regt. and 200 marines to Goram's post, where we remained from 10 o'clock in the morning to 6 o'clock evening of the 6th inst. On the beach waiting the return of flat-bottomed boats, which did not arrive for fear of being discovered, as our embarkation was to be made with the greatest secrecy ; when we thought we were liable to be discovered we drew off from the beach, and took position in some houses about a mile west of Goram's post.

6th Marched from last night's posts, and crossed the River Else Chemin with the 15th regt. and 200 marines ; about one hour thereafter, embarked on board the Sunderland man-of-war, and the remaining part of the troops distributed to the different vessels proportionate to the vessels' accomodation, where the whole remained all night.

7th. Remained on board the Sunderland man-of-war till three o'clock this evening, when Capt. Simon Fraser's co. of Light Infantry were ordered to be embarked on board the sloop Good Intent. A fine open country on both sides of the river, 18 leagues above or west of the town. At twelve o'clock this night were ordered to be ready to embark on board the flat-bottom boats ; counter-ordered at two o'clock in the morning of the 8th inst.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Tuesday, September 11, 2018

Invalid Soldiers of the 78th Regiment, 1759-1763

Invalid soldiers were typically injured soldiers fully capable of performing light garrison duties, but not cleared to participate in extended campaigns. They were given duties such as gate guard, cook's assistant, or night watch patrols until such a time when funding and availability permitted their transport back home to Royal Chelsea Hospital in London to attend to their injuries. However, some of these men of Fraser's 78th Regiment, as described by Governor Murray in a letter dated October 20, 1762, were certainly not well off and appear to be in a very bad way.

"...Frasers Regt. is not as strong as it appears to be on paper, I have the honor to inclose a Return of the Invalids of that Corps who are unfit for Garrison duty, and there are many besides who are incapable of taking the field. As those unfit for any duty are kept here at a great expense to the Crown, I did propose to Major Abercrombie to send them Home by the Aldborough, but he told me he believed it was not your intention to discharge any of them, I therefore conclude there are particular Reasons for keeping them on the Roles, some of them want legs, & some arms."

In an excerpt from this December 1762 letter, Governor Murray continues in addressing the situation. Given the time of year, winter freeze most likely forced his decision to refrain from sending the men home at that time.

"...There will not now probably be an opportunity to send home the Invalids of the 78th Regt. 'till the disolution of the Corps, if it shall turn out otherwise, I shall be carefull that none are discharged, but real objects of compassion."

The following is a collection of invalid soldiers of Colonel Simon Fraser's 78th Regiment, 1759-1763, extracted from various documents.

1. Title: Return of Invalids put on board the Nightingale Man of War who Sailed from Louisbourg Harbour June 11th 1759.

Artillery: 2
22 Regiment: 10
35 Regiment: 6
40 Regiment: 10
43 Regiment: 10
45 Regiment: 11
47 Regiment: 1
63 Regiment: 10

Total: 60

2. Title: Return of Invalids under the Command of Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. Embarked on board the Unanimous Transport, New York, 9th January 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Archd. Stewart
Robert Ross
John Cameron
John Mcleron
Donald Livingstone
John McLeod
George Crookshanks
Hector McTeal
Hugh McMullen
Neal McIntosh
Alexr. McCall
John McDougall
John Cameron

The above men are all paid to the Twenty fourth December 1759, and have signed to that purpose on the back of their Discharges, and Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. has received for them sixty one days pay to the Twenty third of February Inclusive. And he has my orders upon his arrival at Portsmouth, or wheresoever he may arrive to notify his coming to the Secretary at War, waiting his orders for his preceding to London, either by sea if there should be an order for it or by Land agreeable to the march route, he may Receive for that purpose. He is directed upon his arrival at London to Deliver over said Invalids to the Agents of the Regiment they belong to and to pay over to them the pay he may still have in his hands belonging to those men.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
James Taylor
John McDonald

The above [two] men are Discharged and not Recommended to Chelsea, but have Desired passage to England.

Jeff Amherst

3. Title: Return of Invalids to be discharged, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Alexr. Kenedy: Old Age
Murdoch McKinzey: Old Age
Wm. McLeod: Old Age & Rhumatic
David Gallen: Old Age
Danl. Campble: Old Age
Robt. Monroe: Old Age
Keneth McLeod: Old Age
Alexr. McDougald: Old Age
John Fraser: Old Age
Danl. Black: Old Age
James Fraser: Old Age
John McNab: Old Age
Niel Beaton: Old Age
Archd. McQuin: Old Age

John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of the Invalids to be Discharged
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

4. Title: Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Duncan McGregar
Peter Thompson

John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York.
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

5. Title: Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal, 1 May 1760.

Colonel Fraser's Regiment
Saml. McDonald
Peter McNiel
John Campbel
James Tolmay
Charles Robinson
Laughlin McIntosh
David Morrison
Geo: Sutherland
Alexr. McDonald

John Adair
Surgeon of the Hospital

Endorsed: Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal
May 1st, 1760
Enclosed to Capt. Blakeney of
the 35th Regt. 2d. May 1760

6. Title: Return of Invalids Under the Command of Capt. Gordon of the Royal Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8 Decemr. 1760.

78th Regiment
Andrew Kennedy
Neal McKay
Charles Robinson
James Tolmie
David Morrison

The above men are all paid to the 24th Decemr. 1760 & have signed to that purpose on the back of their Discharges; Capt. Gordon of the Royal Regt. has received for them sixty one days pay to the 23d. Feby. Inclusively, and he has my orders upon his Arrival at Portsmouth, or wheresoever he may Arrive, to apply to the Commanding Naval Officer, for a Convoy to conduct the vessell, in which the said Invalids are, up the River Thames to London, & Notifying his Arrival to His Majesty's Secretary at War; He is likewise Directed upon his Arrival in London, to deliver over said Invalids to the Agents of the Regts. they belong to, & to pay over to them the pay he may still have in his hands belonging to those men. Some of these men have been in the Hospital here, and so long Absent from their Regiments that they could not be cloathed, they have received an allowance in Lieu of the cloathing that was due, that they might be entirely cleared, & not have any Demands to claim on their Arrival in England.

Jeff Amherst

Endorsed: Return of Invalids Under the Command of Captain Gordon, Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8th Decemr. 1760

Enclosed to Lord Barrington, of said Month.

7. Title: A List of Invalids of the Seventy Eight Regiment unfit for any sort of duty, 11 November 1762.

Col. Fraser's Company
Murdock McKenzie

Major Abercrombie's Company
Niel Beatton
Donald McDonald
John Anderson
Alexander McKay
John McIver
John McLeod
Donald Ross

Major Campbell's Company
John Campbell - Corporal
Duncan Campbell
Robert Munroe
John Kenedy
John Ferguson
James Lamb
Donald Cameron
Kennitt McLeod
Peter Hill
John Clerk

Captain Jno McDonnell's Company
Donald McDonald
Donald Stuart
John McDonnel

Captain Simon Fraser's Company
John McKay
Alexander Cormack
Hector McNeil
Donald Munroe

Captain Hugh Fraser's Company
Samuel Cameron
Arch'b McQueen

Captain Hugh Cameron's Company
Alexander Fraser
Evan McMillan
Geo'r Sutherland
James Rhind
Alexander McDougal
John Law
Alex'r Ramsay
Donald Gun Drum'r
John McPhie
Donald McAlister
John Fraser

Captain John Fraser's Company
Donald McGrower [possibly McGrover]
Hugh McTormit
John McKinzie

Captain John Nairn's Company
John McKay, Serj
Alexander Munroe
John McDonnel
James Henderson
William Ross

Captain Alexander Campbell's Company
Donald McPherson
Donald McPherson

Captain Archibald Campbell's Company
Donald Black
Lachlan McIntosh
David Gollan 
John Brown
John Fraser
William Rose

A true copy from the regimental return. 
Thomas Mills, Town Major. Nov 11th

8. Title: Detachment Invalids: Detachment of 78th Regt. belonging to companies in continent, August 1763.

Time of Entry: 16 Aug
Number of Days Victulled: 7

James Gunn, Drummer
Dond. Thompson, Pvt.
Dond. Fraser, Pvt.
Dun Cumming, Pvt.
John Fraser, [illegible] [21 days]
James Robinson, Serjt.
Simon Fraser, Drummer
Alexr. McArthur, Pvt.
Dond. Cuthbert, Pvt.
Lachn. McIntosh, Pvt.
Allan McDonell, Serjt.
Dond. Burke, Drummer
Jno. Coll
Wm. Moore
John Clarke, Serjt.
Alexr. Fraser, Drummer
John Fraser, Private
Dond. McQueen, Pvt.
John Fraser, Drummer
John McDonell, Private
Rand. McDonell, Pvt.
Jas. Crawford, Pvt.
Jno. McDonell, Pvt.
Mary Kennedy

Time of Entry: Aug. 30
Number of Days Victulled: 7

Niel Mahan
Lachn. McKenon
Dun. McDonald.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids put on board the Nightingale Man of War, 11 June 1759." Correspondence between the Governors of Cape Breton Island and the Commander-in-Chief, New York, 175801762. W.O. 34, vol. 17. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids under the Command of Ensign Shorne of the Inniskilling Regt. Embarked on board the Unanimity Transport, New York, 9th January 1760." Unknown. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids to be Discharged, 1 May 1760." Correspondence between Commander-in-Chief and Director of Hospitals and various officers in charge of vessels on the Lakes, 1757-63, 1759. W.O. 34, vol. 64. LAC.

Ibid. "Return of men to be sent to their Regiment from the Hospital at New York, 1 May 1760."

Ibid. "Return of men to be left in Hospital for further tryal, 1 May 1760."

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "Return of Invalids Under the Command of Capt. Gordon of the Royal Embarked on board the Lyon Transport, New York, 8 Decemr. 1760." Correspondence between Commander-in-Chief and Masters of vessels, etc. 1757-1763. W.O. 34, vol. 60. LAC.

War Office Records: Amherst Papers. "A List of Invalids of the Seventy Eight Regiment unfit for any sort of duty, 11 November 1762." Letters from the Governor of Quebec to the Commanders-in-Chief, New York, 1760-1763. W.O. 34, vol. 2. LAC.

Treasury Board Papers, "Detachment Invalids: Detachment of 78th Regt. belonging to companies in continent, August 1763." Subsistence rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th) 1763. T.1, vol. 422. LAC.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Monday, September 3, 2018

Private Duncan Cumming, 60th, 78th Regiments

Born in Scotland [date/town unknown], Private Duncan Cumming enlisted in the army and initially served six years with the 78th Foot in various campaigns in North America. At the conclusion of the war in the summer of 1763, his name appears on two separate muster reports as having received seven days subsistence pay: 78th Foot: A Detachment of Invalids, dated 16 August, and in Colonel Fraser's Company on the Subsistence rolls of Fraser's Highlanders, dated 23 August. At this time, it is uncertain as to why the two separate musters. About 25 August, he, then, transferred to the 2d Battalion, 60th Foot, and selected to remain in North America [along with the 15th Foot and 27th Foot] to continue to provide a guard for the government in Montreal, where he served an additional 19 months in Captain Robert Brigstock's Company and discharged on 29 March 1765.

Discharge Certificate
[front page]
By Captain Robert Bayard Esq.
Commanding the Second Battn of the Royal American Regiment

These are to certify that the Bearer hereof Duncan Cumming having Served Honestly and faithfully for the space of Eight years, part of which in the Late 78th & part in the above said Regiment and in Captn Robert Brigstocks Compy, but having found a good man in his place, he is hereby Discharged, Having first Received a just account of all his pay & appears of pay cloathing of all Sort, and all other of his just Demands from the time of his Entering in the said Regiment to this day, being the Day of his Discharge as appears by his Receipt on the other side.

Given under my Hand at Montreal this 29th day of March 1765.

Robt Bayard

To all whom it may concern

[back page]
I do hereby acknowledge to have Received a just account of all My pay arrears of pay cloathing of all Sorts, and all other Demands from the time of My Entering in the Regiment to this day, being the day of My Discharge.
Witness My hand this 29th day of March 1765

Duncan Cumming

Personal Affidavit
Province of
Lower Canada
to wit:

Personally appeared before me - 
James Hughes, Esquire, one of His Majesty's Commissioners of the Peace for the District of Montreal, Duncan Cumming, who being sworn on the Holy Evangelists, made Oath and with that he has not as yet received His Majesty's bounty of Lands for his past services in this Province or in any other of His Majesty's Colonies in America, nor any gratuity whatever in lieu thereof, and to which he is entitled agreeable to the Royal Instructions for himself, his Wife, and seven Children namely, Margaritte, aged 25, Flora 19, Janet 18, Duncan 17, Isabel 15, Alexander 12, & John 6 years 1.

Duncan Cuming

Sworn Before me at
Montreal this 29th Day
of March, 1800.

James Hughes: J.P.

Certificate of Claims
Certificate of Claims for part of the waste Lands of the Crown by Duncan Cumming, on behalf of himself, his Wife & seven Children.
That he served in the 78th Regiment at the Reduction of Louisburgh and Quebec ~ 
That he also served in the 60th Regiment, and at all times in the Militia particularly at the taking of Colonel Allen prisoner in the year 1775. ~
That he had been settled in Canada upwards of thirty two years, is now far advanced in years and in low circumstances. ~
That he is well known to us and worthy of His Majesty's Bounty. ~ 

Montreal, 29th March 1800.

Except as to the first article
I know the rest ~

James McGill
Richd. Dobie
Edw. Wm. Gray

Note: His official discharge paperwork from Colonel Fraser's 78th Regiment has never been located, and the claim of militia service in 1775 remains unsubstantiated.

Census Returns
January 1785, Montreal, Duncan Cummings. [Names only].

Vital Records
Listed as Duncan Cummings, he is most likely the same man who married Agathe Charpentier on 18 November 1771 as recorded in the parish register of the Anglican, Christ Church Cathedral, Montreal, Quebec.

Note: No additional Cummings marriages located in this parish between 1766-1784

Christenings [Parish of Montreal]:
Margaret Cummins
Birth: 8 August 1773
Baptized: 12 September 1773

George Cummins
Birth: 24 May 1777
Baptized: 29 May 1777

Florence Cummins
Birth: 18 December 1778
Baptized: 24 December 1778

Jane Cummins
Birth: 5 April 1781
Baptized: 8 April 1781

Isabel Cumming [Montreal]
Baptized: 12 March 1786
Listed as daughter of Duncan Cumming of Montreal.

Note: Due diligence should be performed to confirm these are the children of Duncan and Agathe.

Notarial Records
Name: Duncan Cummings & Agathe Charpentier
Type: Autres
Record Date: 31 May 1806
Record Place: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Notary: Guy, Louis
Record Description: Compe et partage
Source Citation:
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec; Montréal, Quebec, Canada; District: Montréal; Title: Guy, Louis (1801-1842).

Name: Duncan Cummings & Agathe Charpentier
Type: Inventaire
Record Date: 6 Feb. 1806
Record Place: Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Notary: Guy, Louis
Record Description: Inventaire
Source Citation:
Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec; Montréal, Quebec, Canada; District: Montréal; Title: Guy, Louis (1801-1842).

"Schedule of certificates and discharges of non-commissioned officers and soldiers reduced in America." Lower Canada Land Papers, RG 1 L 3, vol. 157, No. 52. Public Archives Canada.

Treasury Board Papers, "Subsistence Rolls of Fraser's Highlanders (the 78th), 1763." LAC, T.1, vol. 422.

“Marriage record of Duncan Cummings and Agathe Charpentier, Nov. 1771.” Genealogie Quebec, Drouin Institute, Sept. 2018,

“List of English inhabitants in the City of Montreal in January 1785.” Civil and Provincial Secretary Lower Canada ["S" Series], 1760-1840 [RG 4, A 1, vol. 27], Microfilm C-3000, Public Archives Canada.

"Births, marriages, and deaths recorded in the register of the parish of Montreal, 1766-1787." [M.G. 8, G 19, vol. 22], Microfilm C-3023, Public Archives Canada.

Bethune, Reverend John. "Baptism of Isabel Cumming." Omissions of marriages and baptisms in the 84th Regiment. LDS FHL, SLC, UT, Microfilm: 004507724, image: 191.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Saturday, September 1, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Five

Fraser's 78th Highlanders
July 25th, 1759. Arrived this morning on the lower settlements of the North side, the River en Chemin, Capt. Fraser's Co. having the van. Seized about 300, including men, women and children, 150 head of cattle, some horses, and several sheep. When we came near the above camp forage was forwarded with Capt. Delaune's Company, as also the prisoners.

Major Dalling marched to Capt. Goram's house, where the detachment took post till further orders.

26th. Marched from last night's post to our cantonments, where we were informed of Capt. Delaune;s sending last night a corporal and six men with orders to Major Dalling, who were attacked on the communications by twenty Canadians (as the corporal) said. One Rigby, our surgeon's mate, who accompanied the corporal's party was killed with 2 men, 3 taken prisoners, only one escaped with the corporal, who confirmed the above, as also that on returning the corporal killed one of the Canadians.

Three of the prisoners from Capt. Delanne's Co. of those taken and sent to camp, recommended to the particular care of the captain. The evening of the 24th curt. Colonel Fraser set out with 300 men of his regt. to take prisoners, and bring cattle ; as they were marching some miles, east of Beaumont, they were fired on by one man only (as is said) which wounded the Colonel in the thigh, and broke Capt. McPherson's arm.

After arriving in camp we learnt that the Colonels van guard was fired on before day, who, according to others, retired into the wood, and he stepping to some small eminence to give directions to a part of his detachment to move on in a manner formerly directed, his voice making it known to the enemy where the commanding officer stood, three of them directed their fire up that way, which wounded the Colonel and Capt. McPherson in the right thighs. 

27th. Remained in cantonments all day ; nothing done in camp. In the night the enemy sent down one fire raft containing one hundred stages, lined with combustibles (did no harm).

28th. A deserter from the enemy to the westward of Montmorency ; little intelligence.

29th. Extreme hot weather ; 13 companys under orders all day ; it was supposed they were to cross Montmorency Falls, and attack a redoubt ; nothing was done. Capt. Ross and Lt. Nairn of Colonel Fraser's Regt. fought a duel this morning, very much to the discredit to the former.

30th. MORNING INTELLIGENCE. A deserter from one of the grenadier cos. on the Island of Orleans going over to the enemy is the reason nothing was done yesterday.

30th. a landing was to be endeavoured the 29th, consisting of two rgts. from Point Levy, and 13 cos. grenadiers from orleans, under cover of the fire of two frigates running on shore at high water, which time of the two regts. landing, the troops on the north shore were to cross Montmorency Falls, ----- Webb's regt. to march along the south shore the length of Goram's and return in the evening to their former post. The reason of which designing to draw the attention to the quarter. Posted this night by the battery as usual.

31st. At 12 o'clock this day, two catts with 6-pounders (in place of the supposed frigates) ran on shore, at which time the troops embarked in floats and in boats ; the many motions made by them gave the enemy time to assemble there in force where an attack was most probable. The two catts and the battery to the eastward of Montmorency continued firing till about five o'clock evening, when the 13 cos. Grenadiers from Orleans and the 2 regts. from Point Levy landed on the beach at which time the Montmorency troops crossed below the Falls, it being low water. The Grenadiers formed, and marched up to attack the entrenchments but by the steepness of a hill directly above them it was found impracticable, sustained a heavy fire for some minutes without their firing a shot, being obliged to retire. Amherst's and the Highlanders covered their retreat, which was done in good order, and without confusion, carrying off the wounded. The troops to the eastward of Montmorency returned to their camp with Fraser's regt., the Grenadiers to Orleans, and Amherst's to Point Levy. As the ships could not be got off there was a necessity of burning them. Killed, 38 ; wounded, 62 ; missing 1.

Faints made. Brigadier Murray commanded Anstruther's regt. and a body of Light Infantry, with orders to move on as if intending to cross above the aforesaid Falls, and if possible to effect it ; and Colonel Burton with Webb's regt. marched along the southern shore in order to DRAW THE ATTENTION OF THE ENEMY their WAY.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, Fraser's 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.

Wednesday, August 15, 2018

The Siege of Quebec: Week Four

July 18th, 1759. This morning General Wolfe reconoitered the opposite or north shore above the town ; seems to think a landing practicable.

In the afternoon Major Dalling marched with two companies along the south shore three miles to the westward of our post, in order to look for places most convenient for the troops to ascend at the landing on the north shore. He found two or three.

On our return to our cantonments we were ordered to take a little rest, as we were to escort General Wolfe in the morning.

July 19th, 1759. At 10 o'clock last night the General came to our cantonments in order to see the shipping pass the town ; at 10 o'clock the Sunderland and Squirrell men-of-war with two transports passed the batterys ; 31 shot fired at them, none of which touched.

Matched to escort the General, who went on board the Sutherland in a whaleboat ; at 3 o'clock in the morning Captain Carden and Fraser's company with some rangers marched to a settlement about 7 miles up the river above the town, to endeavour to take prisoners. We crossed a river near it with not the proper precaution ; discovered two or three straggling fellows who got off ; it seemed by the fires in the houses they had been inhabited lately. Found a note on the door of a house begging that we should not set it on fire. Returned to our cantonments by 10 o'clock at night, and on our arrival marched with the General 4 miles back ; the same communication we came by, where we remained all night. About 11 o'clock the enemy sett up the Indian hoop, and fired small arms ; most probably occasioned to a small alarm.

20th. Last night the General went on board the Sunderland ; at eight o'clock this morning marched to our cantonments ; on our way way we took a Canadian and his boy about 12 years old prisoners ; one of our men fired at him, and not withstanding his seeing it impossible to escape, being surrounded by 100 men, he returned the fire, and killed the soldier a Highlander belonging to Capt. Fraser's company. It was with great difficulty his life was suffered from the fury of the men who were exasperated at the scoundrel's action. He seemed to know little excepting the haunts of the straggling inhabitants.

20th. This evening an intelligent deserter from the enemy confirmed that the 13th curt. 1500 men having crossed the river in order to attack our battery and post, but on landing a false alarm made them fire on each other ; two Canadians were killed, the Indians fled then, and the detachment returned without presuming to look at one of our sentinels.

21st. Rainy weather ; marched to escort Admiral Holmes to Capt. Goram's post, being 2 miles from our post. He greatly difficulted how to get on board the shipping as they lay 6 miles above Goram's.

Arrived the General from on board the Sunderland, who informed us he had ordered Colonel Carleton to land at Point au Tremble with Amherst's and Fraser's Grenadiers, and a small detachment of the 3rd B. of R. Americans, which order was put in execution at daybreak in the morning of the 22nd. They were opposed by some Canadians and Indians, who gave way soon. Fraser's Grenadiers pursued too far, killing two Indians, and obliging the remainder to fly, leaving everything behind. Major Prevost, Lu Mc Douwel, and one volunteer wounded, with 14 men killed.

22nd. Marched from Goram's post as an escort to the General ; on our return to the cantonments received orders of marching. At night the town much bombarded, set on fire, and burnt most of the night a good many shot and shell ; two ships, endeavouring to pass the batterys sustained most of the fire, was obliged to set back with contrary winds, without which they could pass.

The lady's taken yesterday returned this day ; Capt. Smith, Aide de Camp to Gen. Wolfe, not politely used by the French in town.

23rd. Remained in our cantonments all day under orders for marching ; detained for want of a guide. At 1 o'clock this night marched the whole detachment of Light Infantry, with 30 Rangers, under the command of Major Dalling. At the time of our departure to town set on fire, and burnt most of the night.

Anon. Journal of the particular transactions during the siege of Quebec: at anchor opposite the Island of Orleans, July 26th, 1759. London, Quebec, 1901.

©  Jeffrey Campbell, The 78th Regiment of Foot, 2018.